Gregory Gross

Timeline

All Timeline EntriesBiographical EventsBranding ChangesHistorical EventsMarketing DevelopmentsPatent and Trademark EventsProduct DevelopmentsQuestar Company Developments


1944

Lawrence Braymer completes his preliminary sketches for a catadioptric telescope (August).[1] See details.

1947

Lawrence Braymer submits an application entitled “Telescope,” which eventually became U.S. Patent #2,670,656 (November 25).[2] See details.

Lawrence Braymer takes his first photographs using the first experimental Questar telescope.[3] See details.

1948

Lawrence Braymer submits an application entitled “Telescope,” which eventually became U.S. Patent #2,649,791 (June 16).[4] See details.

Lawrence Braymer submits an application entitled “Reflecting Telescope with Auxiliary Optical System,” which eventually became U.S. Patent #2,628,529 (September 25).[5] See details.

Lawrence Braymer submits an application entitled “Multiple Image Telescope,” which eventually became U.S. Patent #2,753,760 (September 25).[6] See details.

1949

Lawrence Braymer submits an application entitled “Telescope Mounting,” which eventually became U.S. Patent #2,693,032 (March 15).[7] See details.

Lawrence Braymer’s patent attorney Joseph Denny suggests relocating the secondary spot to the R1 (outside) surface of the corrector lens as a way to circumvent Albert Bouwers’s patent (late 1949).[8] See details.

1950

A design document shows a preliminary extruded metal telescope case (July 25).[9] See details.

A design document shows a revised extruded case consisting of two pieces that snapped together (August 8).[10] See details.

A design document shows a final two-piece extruded case made of material from Alcoa (September 24).[11] See details.

A design document shows end caps for an extruded box (September 26).[12] See details.

1951

A design document shows an eyepiece adapter tube (June 9).[13] See details.

A design document shows a control box casting with a swing-in finder mirror (June 19).[14] See details.

A design document shows a single side arm casting with open sides and no ridges (July 24).[15] See details.

1952

A design document shows a capstan screw knob for connecting a single removable side arm to a turntable (March 23).[16] See details.

A design document shows cover cap nuts for connecting the top of an extruded box (April 2).[17] See details.

A design document shows a control box closure plug that is 0.925 inches wide and has a threading of 32 TPI (May 5).[18] See details.

A design document shows a bracket that supports a swing-in finder mirror (August 11).[19] See details.

1953

A brochure depicting a prototype Questar telescope appears (June).[20] See details.

A design document shows the base casting in its current shape (July 1).[21] See details.

A design document shows a preliminary turntable casting with two side arms (September 10).[22] See details.

A design document shows the final and current version of the turntable casting with two side arms (October 8).[23] See details.

A design document shows slip-fit legs—two side legs and one center leg that was adjustable—for a new base (December 16).[24] See details.

1954

The 3.5-inch Questar telescope is introduced to the market (May).[25] See details.

Lawrence Braymer submits an application entitled “Telescope,” which eventually became U.S. Patent #D-175,388 (September 20).[26] See details.

Questar receives 56 extruded flat-bottom aluminum shells from Alcoa in an apparent indication that the company had started to investigate alternatives to Synthane for the telescope tube (September).[27] See details.

A trio of documents show the current design for the azimuth slow motion knob, the elevation clamp knob, and the elevation drive knob (December 20-23, 1954).[28] See details.

1955

A design document shows the current finder mirror cage design (January 26).[29] See details.

1956

Questar switches away from a control box with a bare metal finish to one with a painted finish (early 1956).[30] See details.

Questar transitions from red, silver, and blue side arm logo badges to ones with “Questar” in white lettering against a red background (early 1956).[31] See details.

A design document shows a Praktica/Pentacon camera adapter (April 8).[32] See details.

Introduction of the early version of the Field Model (May).[33] See details.

First appearance in an advertisement of a side arm logo badge with “Questar” in white lettering against a red background (May).[34] See details.

First appearance in an advertisement of a Rival Reflex camera, a rebranded domestic version of the Praktica FX, attached to a Questar telescope (May).[35] See details.

First appearance in an advertisement of a Hexacon camera attached to a Questar telescope (August).[36] See details.

First appearance in an advertisement of the Linhof tripod (September).[37] See details.

Eyepieces no longer bear diopter indicators.[38] See details.

Questar switches from Synthane to brushed aluminum for the telescope’s base plate.[39] See details.

Questar switches from a snap-on to thread-on solar filter.[40] See details.

1957

Announcement of accessories for the early version of the Field Model (January).[41] See details.

Questar offers the Praktica camera for $99.50 (January).[42] See details.

Questar offers the Hexacon camera for $134.50 (January).[43] See details.

A design document shows a camera adapter (May 5).[44] See details.

A design document shows a full-aperture solar filter cell (October 25).[45] See details.

Quartz primary mirrors appear as a $105 upgrade option (December).[46] See details.

Introduction of aspheric optics (December).[47] See details.

Questar changes its serial numbering convention from a single sequence number (e.g., “123”) to one with the last digit of the year of production and a sequence number separated by a dash (e.g., “7-345”).[48] See details.

1958

Last appearance in an advertisement of the early version of the Field Model (January).[49] See details.

An early Questar Seven prototype appears (April).[50] See details.

Announcement of a heavy vinyl luggage case cover with drawstrings and metal grommets (November).[51] See details.

Between February 1957 and November 1958

Questar transitions away from Synthane to aluminum for the telescope tube.[52] See details.

1959

First advertisement with an illustration of the full-aperture solar filter (May).[53] See details.

Questar announces the availability of a drive inverter that works off typical car batteries, an accessory made by American Television and Radio Company of St. Paul, Minnesota (June).[54] See details.

Questar begins to offer the option of a star diagonal prism in addition to the standard Amici prism (circa June 1959).[55] See details.

Questar changes its specification for focal length and ratio to 45.5 inches at f/13 (September).[56] See details.

1960

A design document shows an eyepiece adapter ring for use with a camera extension tube set (January 14).[57] See details.

A design document shows Nylatron thrust and plunger pins for a new settable right ascension circle (February 8).[58] See details.

Standard Questars no longer require an auxiliary plate for mounting to a tripod (March 26).[59] See details.

The right ascension setting circle now allows the user to set it (March 26).[60] See details.

The last Questar marked with a focal length and ratio of 42.4 inches at f/12.1 appears (early or mid-1960).[61] See details.

First appearance in an advertisement of Nikon F cameras (September).[62] See details.

Questar offers an Amici prism diagonal as a $50 option (November).[63] See details.

Questar offers a modified version of the Praktina FX camera for $200 (November).[64] See details.

1961

Questar reverses the orientation of the moon map (early 1961).[65] See details.

Announcement of a newly designed corrector lens retaining ring (November).[66] See details.

1963

The all-caps “QUESTAR” side arm logo badge replaces the prior “Questar” design (early 1963).[67] See details.

The last Questar marked with a focal length and ratio of 45.5 inches at f/13 appears (early 1963).[68] See details.

Introduction of the Questar-modified Nikon F (May).[69] See details.

A design document shows a swiveling three-part camera adapter (August 22).[70] See details.

First appearance in an advertisement of a counterweight accessory (October).[71] See details.

A design document shows a dust cap ring and Synthane disk (November 29).[72] See details.

1964

Introduction of the modern Field Model (February).[73] See details.

Introduction of a new and improved swiveling camera coupler (February).[74] See details.

Introduction of the wide field construction (February).[75] See details.

Questar changes its specification for focal length and ratio to 50.5 inches at f/14.4 (July).[76] See details.

Introduction of a front lens diaphragm.[77] See details.

Questar introduces the Varitrac drive accessory.[78] See details.

1965

Introduction of a thread-on Barlow lens for attachment to the axial port (circa 1965).[79] See details.

A separate corrector lens dust cap becomes available for separate purchase (circa 1965).[80] See details.

1966

Introduction of a tabletop tripod for use with the Field Model and a suitable tripod head (April 1).[81] See details.

Questar-modified Nikon F with Photomic T viewfinder appears (April 1).[82] See details.

Questar introduces the Varitrac II drive accessory (April 1).[83] See details.

Introduction of the Camera Cradle (April 1).[84] See details.

Introduction of the Questar TV Model (April 1).[85] See details.

Introduction of the Duplex (October).[86] See details.

Questar offers the Beaulieu R16ES 16mm movie camera (November).[87] See details.

Introduction of a C-mount adapter (November).[88] See details.

1967

Questar’s optics fabricator (presumably J.R. Cumberland) delivers the first optics set for the Questar Seven (January 26).[89] See details.

Introduction of broadband and VLR (very low reflective) coatings (March).[90] See details.

First appearance in an advertisement of a Beaulieu Super 8 movie camera (June).[91] See details.

Questar offers the Miller Fluid Head (June).[92] See details.

Introduction of the Questar Seven (September).[93] See details.

Cer-Vit mirror announcement (September).[94] See details.

1968

First appearance in an advertisement of an updated leather carrying case that replaced the original English leather case (March).[95] See details.

Questar begins including a solar filter for the finder system in reaction to the urging of Johnny Carson (April 1).[96] See details.

Introduction of the Questar-modified Beseler Topcon Super D camera body (August).[97] See details.

Introduction of the Piggy-back Mount (August).[98] See details.

Introduction of a finder solar filter as a separate add-on accessory (August).[99] See details.

Quartz primary mirrors are no longer listed as an option (October 1).[100] See details.

Questar-modified Nikon F with Photomic FTn viewfinder appears (October 1).[101] See details.

Re-introduction of an image-erecting porro prism, which Questar had offered with its earlier version of the Field Model (October 1).[102] See details.

Introduction of the Rowi Shoulder Mount (October 1).[103] See details.

1969

A corrector lens dust cap becomes a standard accessory for all 3.5-inch Questar telescopes (July 1).[104] See details.

A tabletop fork mount with tripod legs appears for the Questar Seven (July 1).[105] See details.

Questar introduces a set of optical glass filters (July 1).[106] See details.

Questar exhausts its supply of its carrying cases that used the original English saddle leather design.[107] See details.

1970

A full-aperture solar filter for the Questar Seven appears (March 1).[108] See details.

Introduction of the original Powerguide controller (April).[109] See details.

Introduction of an illuminated crosshair reticle eyepiece and a Varitrac reticle control (April).[110] See details.

Introduction of a Varitrac AC-to-DC converter (April).[111] See details.

Questar modifies is leather carrying case to include a flare off the top panel (circa 1970).[112] See details.

1969 or 1970

Don Yeier and Rodger Gordon travel to Questar and successfully convince the company to switch to Brandon eyepieces.[113] See details.

1971

First appearance in an advertisement of the Questar Portable Pier (later known as the Folding Pier) (April).[114] See details.

Introduction of the Questar Autocollimator (June).[115] See details.

Introduction of the Cinema Model (June).[116] See details.

Introduction of the Questar Television Camera (June).[117] See details.

A built-in Barlow lens and an option for a Pyrex primary mirror both appear for the Questar Seven.[118] See details.

Vernonscope offers a set of machined metal storage sleeves for Brandon eyepieces.[119] See details.

Questar exhausts its supply of eyepieces that used the original design with Japanese-made lenses.[120] See details.

1972

Introduction of a cam-based Fast Focus option for the Field Model (June).[121] See details.

First appearance in an advertisement of the Carpod accessory (October).[122] See details.

The company sends optical drawings with R2 secondary spot placement for the 3.5- and 7-inch Questars to Edward K. Kaprelian for review and analysis.[123] See details.

The first Questar telescopes to include Brandon eyepieces appear.[124] See details.

Questar introduces a quick-change filter holder.[125] See details.

1973

Introduction of the Starguide (March).[126] See details.

The wide field construction becomes the standard option on all Standard Questars.[127] See details.

1974

Introduction of the Questar-modified Olympus OM-1 camera body (September).[128] See details.

Introduction of the Questar SR-7 (December).[129] See details.

Questar telescopes with updated Brandon eyepieces appear.[130] See details.

1975

Introduction of the Questar 20-40 (October).[131] See details.

Introduction of the Ruggedized Questar 3.5 and Questar Seven.[132] See details.

1976

Questar Corporation (Edward K. Kaprelian and William E. Mimmack) submits an application for the Questar 700 entitled “Catadioptric Lens System,” which eventually became U.S. Patent #4,061,420 (May 6).[133] See details.

Introduction of Questar 700 (August).[134] See details.

Edward K. Kaprelian updates the Questar Seven’s optical design.[135] See details.

1977

Questar performs its first testing for R2 secondary spot placement for the 3.5-inch Questar (November).[136] See details.

U.S. Patent and Trademark Office issues Questar Corporation (Edward K. Kaprelian and William E. Mimmack) U.S. Patent #4,061,420 entitled “Catadioptric Lens System” for the Questar 700 (December 6).[137] See details.

Between 1974 and 1977

Tabletop tripod leg rubber tips become larger.[138] See details.

1978

The 3.5-inch Questar with R2 secondary spot placement enters production (April).[139] See details.

Questar Corporation (Edward K. Kaprelian) submits an application entitled “Dual Focal Length Objective,” which eventually became U.S. Patent #4,235,508 (July 17).[140]

A Questar-modified Contax RTS camera body appears.[141] See details.

A Nikon F3HP camera body appears.[142] See details.

1979

Introduction of the Questar 12 and the Questar-Byers mount (August).[143] See details.

A 25th Anniversary Questar enters production (late 1979).[144] See details.

1980

Delivery of the 25th Anniversary Questar (January).[145] See details.

Questar experiments with using broadband coatings with the Questar 700 to increase light throughput (June).[146] See details.

U.S. Patent and Trademark Office issues Questar Corporation (Edward K. Kaprelian) U.S. Patent #4,235,508 entitled “Dual Focal Length Objective” (October 25).[147]

Introduction of the Questar 40-120 (October).[148] See details.

Zerodur replaces Cer-Vit as a primary mirror substrate.[149] See details.

1981

First appearance in an advertisement of the Micro-Questar (later the M1 and QM-1) (January).[150] See details.

First appearance in an advertisement of the Questar mount for the Questar 12 and the Observa-Dome (June).[151] See details.

Questar begins including broadband coatings as a standard feature on all Questar 700 lenses (July).[152] See details.

Push-in tabletop tripod legs are changed to threaded screw-in ones.[153] See details.

Side arm logo badges add a small “” symbol.[154] See details.

1982

Introduction of the M1 (later the QM-1) (May).[155] See details.

1983

Introduction of the Wide-sky Questars (February).[156] See details.

First appearance in an advertisement of the QM-1 (June).[157] See details.

Introduction of a rack-and-pinion Fast Focus II option for the Field Model.[158] See details.

Between 1979 and 1983

Questar-manufactured eyepieces ship with instruments.[159] See details.

1984

First appearance in an advertisement of the Industrial 700 (June).[160] See details.

First appearance in an advertisement of the MFL 3.5 (June).[161] See details.

Mid-1980s

Tripod leg hole plugs change to flat versions.[162] See details.

Questar adopts a new vinyl-clad carrying case.[163] See details.

Questar briefly considers designing and producing a Questar 18.[164] See details.

1986

Questar transitions from side arm edges with a polished finish to ones with a brushed, satin finish (late 1986).[165] See details.

1987

Questar Corporation (Edward K. Kaprelian) submits an application entitled “Dual Axis Optical System,” which eventually became U.S. Patent #4,728,770 (April 27).[166]

Introduction of the Questar Remote Measurement System (QRMS) (September).[167] See details.

The option to order a 3.5-inch Questar with a Zerodur primary mirror upgrade but with standard magnesium fluoride coatings disappears.[168] See details.

1988

U.S. Patent and Trademark Office issues Questar Corporation (Edward K. Kaprelian) U.S. Patent #4,728,770 entitled “Dual Axis Optical System” (March 1).[169]

Questar ends its practice of indicating specifications for the Field Model using triangle stickers affixed to the side of the control box.[170]

1989

First appearance in an advertisement of the QM-100, the QM-2, and the DR-1 (April).[171] See details.

Questar develops the QM-200 long-distance microscope.[172] See details.

Introduction of broadband and narrowband light pollution reduction filters.[173] See details.

Circa 1989

Questar transitions from handwritten to stenciled serial number etchings.[174] See details.

1990

Introduction of the QRMS II (March).[175] See details.

First appearance in an advertisement of the QRMS M (March).[176] See details.

A handheld Powerguide controller is introduced.[177] See details.

Questar adopts a new carrying case that accomodates the new handheld Powerguide controller (circa 1990).[178] See details.

1991

Introduction of the Questar Solar Observatory and SunShield accessory (September).[179] See details.

A Birder model is introduced (November).[180] See details.

Questar Astro Pier is introduced (November).[181] See details.

First appearance in an advertisement of the leather carrying case upgrade option (December).[182] See details.

First appearance in an advertisement of the handheld Powerguide controller (December).[183] See details.

First appearance in an advertisement of the Tri-Stand Mount (December).[184] See details.

1992

A specification document for a proposed Questar Maksutov-Newtonian telescope appears (March 20).[185] See details.

1995

Nylon thumbscrews are introduced in Questar’s dipoter eyepiece adapter for setting standard 1.25-inch eyepieces into place.[186] See details.

1996

A handheld Powerguide II controller is introduced.[187] See details.

1997

Questar Seven Astro is introduced (January).[188] See details.

1998

Questar advertises a proposed convertible Maksutov-Newtonian telescope with two focal lengths and wide rich-field capabilities (September).[189] See details.

1999

Questar Corporation submits an application entitled “Stereoscopic, Long-distance Microscope,” which eventually became U.S. Patent #6,256,143 B1 (February 19).[190] See details.

Planning begins for the 50th Anniversary Questar.[191] See details.

Right ascension setting circle indicates change from hours and degrees to hours and minutes (circa 1999).[192] See details.

Late 1990s

Dew shield finish changes to matte blue.[193] See details.

2000

Introduction of the 50th Anniversary Questar (August).[194] See details.

The first 50th Anniversary Questar is delivered to its buyer at the Q-Fest event in New Hope (September 28).[195] See details.

2001

U.S. Patent and Trademark Office issues Questar Corporation U.S. Patent #6,256,143 B1 entitled “Stereoscopic, Long-distance Microscope” (July 3).[196] See details.

2002

A design document shows updates to the optics, baffle system, and secondary spot size for the 3.5-inch Questar (September 24).[197] See details.

Introduction of the Lightweight Titanium 7 (September).[198] See details.

Coronado etalons and blocking filters are listed part of the Questar Solar Observatory.[199] See details.

2003

Introduction of the Qmax Spectrometer (January).[200] See details.

A design document shows updates to the Questar Seven’s optics, baffle system, and secondary spot size (April 4).[201] See details.

2004

Questar produces a Questar Seven base with a digital setting circles upgrade.[202]

2005

Introduction of the Questar German Equatorial Mount (circa 2005).[203] See details.

2008

A design document shows a new/modified design for the Questar Seven used by NASA for video rocket tracking; the instrument has a dual effective focal length of 1500 and 3000mm (December 8).[204] See details.

2016

Questar produces the PowerGuide III DC motor drive to replace the PowerGuide II system; upgrades for setting circle and dataset hardware are planned for the future.[205] See details.

2018

Questar begins design and prototype work on the Questar 5; the company studies several designs and determines that version 4 with its field flatteners, which resemble those in the Questar 700, is best.[206] See details.

2019

Questar develops the Powerguide III’s object database and setting circle software.[207] See details.

Questar designs a tube for the Questar 5.[208] See details.

An updated carrying case is introduced (late 2019).[209] See details.

2020

The first optics for the Questar 5 (version 4) are produced; the design for the base of the Questar 5 is in progress (August 15).[210] See details.

Notes

1 Stewart Squires, online forum posting, Questar Users Group, August 10, 2010, https://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/Questar/conversations/messages/21192, accessed November 3, 2019.

2 Lawrence Braymer, 1954, Telescope, U.S. Patent 2,670,656, filed November 25, 1947, and issued March 2, 1954, https://patents.google.com/patent/US2670656, accessed December 29, 2019.

3 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Sky and Telescope, August 1956, 456.

4 Lawrence Braymer, 1953, Telescope, U.S. Patent 2,649,791, filed June 16, 1948, and issued August 25, 1953, https://patents.google.com/patent/US2649791, accessed June 9, 2020.

5 Lawrence Braymer, 1953, Reflecting Telescope with Auxiliary Optical System, U.S. Patent 2,628,529, filed September 25, 1948, and issued February 17, 1953, https://patents.google.com/patent/US2753760, accessed June 9, 2020.

6 Lawrence Braymer, 1956, Multiple Image Telescope, U.S. Patent 2,753,760, filed September 25, 1948, and issued July 10, 1956, https://patents.google.com/patent/US2628529, accessed June 9, 2020.

7 Lawrence Braymer, 1954, Telescope Mounting, U.S. Patent 2,693,032, filed March 15, 1949, and issued November 2, 1954, https://patents.google.com/patent/US2693032, accessed June 9, 2020.

8 Stewart Squires, email message to author, October 28, 2019; “Questar Products Index & Overview Page,” Company Seven, n.d., http://www.company7.com/questar/index.html, accessed November 3, 2019.

9 Jim Perkins, “Questar Serial Number Systems” (unpublished manuscript, August 20, 2020), typescript.

10 Jim Perkins, “Questar Serial Number Systems” (unpublished manuscript, August 20, 2020), typescript.

11 Jim Perkins, “Questar Serial Number Systems” (unpublished manuscript, August 20, 2020), typescript.

12 Jim Perkins, “Questar Serial Number Systems” (unpublished manuscript, August 20, 2020), typescript.

13 Jim Perkins, “Questar Serial Number Systems” (unpublished manuscript, August 20, 2020), typescript.

14 Jim Perkins, “Questar Serial Number Systems” (unpublished manuscript, August 20, 2020), typescript.

15 Jim Perkins, “Questar Serial Number Systems” (unpublished manuscript, August 20, 2020), typescript.

16 Jim Perkins, “Questar Serial Number Systems” (unpublished manuscript, August 20, 2020), typescript.

17 Jim Perkins, “Questar Serial Number Systems” (unpublished manuscript, August 20, 2020), typescript.

18 Jim Perkins, “Questar Serial Number Systems” (unpublished manuscript, August 20, 2020), typescript.

19 Jim Perkins, “Questar Serial Number Systems” (unpublished manuscript, August 20, 2020), typescript.

20 Questar Corporation, salesman instrument leaflet, June 1953.

21 Jim Perkins, “Questar Serial Number Systems” (unpublished manuscript, August 20, 2020), typescript.

22 Jim Perkins, “Questar Serial Number Systems” (unpublished manuscript, August 20, 2020), typescript.

23 Jim Perkins, “Questar Serial Number Systems” (unpublished manuscript, August 20, 2020), typescript.

24 Jim Perkins, “Questar Serial Number Systems” (unpublished manuscript, August 20, 2020), typescript.

25 Questar Corporation, Questar booklet, May 1954.

26 Lawrence Braymer, 1955, Telescope, U.S. Patent D-175,388, filed September 20, 1954, and issued August 23, 1955, https://patents.google.com/patent/USD175388S, accessed June 9, 2020.

27 Jim Perkins, email message to author, December 1, 2020.

28 Jim Perkins, “Questar Serial Number Systems” (unpublished manuscript, August 20, 2020), typescript.

29 Jim Perkins, “Questar Serial Number Systems” (unpublished manuscript, August 20, 2020), typescript.

30 “Early Production Questar 3-½ Telescopes: 1954 and 1955,” Company Seven, n.d., http://www.company7.com/library/questar/que54-55.html, accessed July 11, 2019.

31 “Early Production Questar 3-½ Telescopes: 1954 and 1955,” Company Seven, n.d., http://www.company7.com/library/questar/que54-55.html, accessed July 11, 2019.

32 Jim Perkins, “Questar Serial Number Systems” (unpublished manuscript, August 20, 2020), typescript.

33 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Sky and Telescope, May 1956, 327.

34 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Sky and Telescope, May 1956, 327.

35 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Sky and Telescope, May 1956, 327.

36 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Sky and Telescope, August 1956, 456.

37 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Sky and Telescope, September 1956, 500-501.

38 “Early Production Questar 3-½ Telescopes: 1954 and 1955,” Company Seven, n.d., http://www.company7.com/library/questar/que54-55.html, accessed November 3, 2019.

39 “Early Production Questar 3-½ Telescopes: 1954 and 1955,” Company Seven, n.d., http://www.company7.com/library/questar/que54-55.html, accessed July 11, 2019.

40 “Early Production Questar 3-½ Telescopes: 1954 and 1955,” Company Seven, n.d., http://www.company7.com/library/questar/que54-55.html, accessed July 11, 2019.

41 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Sky and Telescope, January 1957, 133.

42 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Sky and Telescope, January 1957, 133.

43 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Sky and Telescope, January 1957, 133.

44 Jim Perkins, “Questar Serial Number Systems” (unpublished manuscript, August 20, 2020), typescript.

45 Jim Perkins, “Questar Serial Number Systems” (unpublished manuscript, August 20, 2020), typescript.

46 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Sky and Telescope, December 1957, 91.

47 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Sky and Telescope, December 1957, 91.

48 As of July 13, 2021, the first Questar known to the author to have its year of manufacture indicated in its serial number is #7-294, built in 1957 (Ben Langlotz, online forum posting, Cloudy Nights, February 15, 2019, https://www.cloudynights.com/topic/641258-observations-on-servicing-an-old-1957-questar/?p=9148911, accessed July 13, 2021).

49 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Sky and Telescope, January 1958, 132.

50 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Sky and Telescope, April 1958, 301.

51 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Sky and Telescope, November 1958, 41.

52 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Sky and Telescope, February 1957, 186; Questar Corporation, advertisement, Sky and Telescope, November 1958, 41.

53 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Sky and Telescope, May 1959, 392.

54 Questar Corporation, Questar booklet, October 1958, with addenda, June 1959, 28.

55 Questar Corporation, Questar booklet, October 1958, with addenda, June 1959, 28; “Early Production Questar 3-½ Telescopes: 1954 and 1955,” Company Seven, n.d., http://www.company7.com/library/questar/que54-55.html, accessed July 5, 2019.

56 Questar Corporation, Questar booklet, October 1958, prices effective September 1, 1959, addenda September 1959, 30.

57 Jim Perkins, “Questar Serial Number Systems” (unpublished manuscript, August 20, 2020), typescript.

58 Jim Perkins, “Questar Serial Number Systems” (unpublished manuscript, August 20, 2020), typescript.

59 Questar Corporation, instruction book, late 1961, 10.

60 Questar Corporation, “Questar Serial Number Systems,” n.d., https://www.questarcorporation.com/start.htm, accessed September 30, 2019.

61 As of December 21, 2020, the last Questar known to the author to have an effective focal length and focal ratio marked as 42.4 inches at f/12.1 is #0-691, built on April 19, 1960 (Mark Dahmke, “Vintage 1960 Questar,” Cloudy Nights, September 1, 2020, https://www.cloudynights.com/classifieds/item/221176-vintage-1960-questar/, accessed September 2, 2020).

62 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Sky and Telescope, September 1960, 151.

63 Questar Corporation, Questar booklet, October 1958, with addenda, June 1959, 28; “Early Production Questar 3-½ Telescopes: 1954 and 1955,” Company Seven, n.d., http://www.company7.com/library/questar/que54-55.html, accessed July 5, 2019.

64 Questar Corporation, Questar booklet, November 1960, 28.

65 As of July 12, 2021, the last Questar known to the author to have its moon map orientation with the lunar north pole positioned towards the front part of the scope is #1-922, built around the spring of 1961 (“Questar Catadioptic Apochromatic Telescope Variable Focal Length: 45.5" f/13,” eBay, July 7, 2021, https://www.ebay.com/itm/313595466085, accessed July 12, 2021).

66 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Natural History, November 1961, inside front cover.

67 As of February 3, 2021, the last Questar known to the author to have the early “Questar” red and white side arm logo badge is #3-1623, built on March 25, 1963 (“1963 Questar Standard - REDUCED,” Astromart, July 26, 2017, https://astromart.com/classifieds/astromart-classifieds/telescope-catadioptric/show/1963-questar-standard-reduced, accessed February 3, 2021).

68 The latest Questar that is listed in a registry by Ralph Foss with an effective focal length and ratio of 45.5 inches at f/13 is #2-1486, built on December 13, 1962 (Ralph Foss, “Questar_focal_length-rev-04-28-06.XLS” (unpublished manuscript, April 28, 2006), spreadsheet, https://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/Questar/files/Questar%20Historical%20Prices%20and%20more/, accessed October 15, 2019). Another example dating from March 1963, one that is privately known to the author, also has this focal length and ratio marking.

69 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Scientific American, May 1963, 188; Questar Corporation, advertisement, Analog Science Fact/Science Fiction, May 1963, 5.

70 Jim Perkins, “Questar Serial Number Systems” (unpublished manuscript, August 20, 2020), typescript.

71 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Sky and Telescope, October 1963, inside front cover.

72 Jim Perkins, “Questar Serial Number Systems” (unpublished manuscript, August 20, 2020), typescript.

73 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Sky and Telescope, February 1964, inside front cover; Questar Corporation, advertisement, Natural History, February 1964, 65; Questar Corporation, advertisement, Scientific American, February 1964, 26.

74 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Sky and Telescope, February 1964, inside front cover; Questar Corporation, advertisement, Natural History, February 1964, 65; Questar Corporation, advertisement, Scientific American, February 1964, 26.

75 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Sky and Telescope, February 1964, inside front cover; Questar Corporation, advertisement, Natural History, February 1964, 65; Questar Corporation, advertisement, Scientific American, February 1964, 26.

76 Questar Corporation, Questar booklet, July 1964, 38.

77 Questar Corporation, Questar booklet, July 1964, 30.

78 Questar Corporation, price catalog, 1964.

79 Questar Corporation, price catalog, circa 1965.

80 Questar Corporation, price catalog, circa 1965.

81 Questar Corporation, price catalog, April 1, 1966.

82 Questar Corporation, price catalog, April 1, 1966.

83 Questar Corporation, price catalog, April 1, 1966.

84 Questar Corporation, price catalog, April 1, 1966.

85 Questar Corporation, price catalog, April 1, 1966.

86 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Sky and Telescope, October 1966, inside front cover; Questar Corporation, advertisement, Natural History, October 1966, 75; Questar Corporation, advertisement, Scientific American, October 1966, 48.

87 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Natural History, November 1966, 6; Questar Corporation, advertisement, Scientific American, November 1966, 9.

88 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Natural History, November 1966, 6; Questar Corporation, advertisement, Scientific American, November 1966, 9.

89 Alt-Telescopes-Questar Majordomo list message, September 15, 1998, digest 258, https://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/Questar/files/Alt-Telescopes-Questar%20Digests/, accessed October 14, 2019.

90 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Sky and Telescope, March 1967, inside front cover.

91 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Natural History, June-July 1967, 61; Questar Corporation, advertisement, Scientific American, June 1967, 111.

92 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Natural History, June-July 1967, 61; Questar Corporation, advertisement, Scientific American, June 1967, 111.

93 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Sky and Telescope, September 1967, inside front cover.

94 Questar Corporation, price catalog, September 1, 1967.

95 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Natural History, March 1968, 10; Questar Corporation, advertisement, Scientific American, March 1968, 134.

96 Questar Corporation, price catalog, October 1, 1968.

97 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Sky and Telescope, August 1968, inside front cover; Charles Beseler Company, advertisement, Scientific American, August 1968, 44; Questar Corporation, advertisement, Scientific American, August 1968, 45.

98 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Sky and Telescope, August 1968, inside front cover.

99 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Sky and Telescope, August 1968, inside front cover.

100 Questar Corporation, price catalog, October 1, 1968.

101 Questar Corporation, price catalog, October 1, 1968.

102 Questar Corporation, price catalog, October 1, 1968.

103 Questar Corporation, price catalog, October 1, 1968.

104 Questar Corporation, price catalog, July 1, 1969.

105 Questar Corporation, price catalog, July 1, 1969.

106 Questar Corporation, price catalog, July 1, 1969.

107 As of May 5, 2021, the latest Questar known to the author to have included the original English saddle leather carrying case is #9-CV-DP-4008-BB, built in 1969 (“Q_Inventory_083115b.xls” (unpublished manuscript, August 31, 2015), spreadsheet, https://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/Questar/files/Questar%20Information%20Database/, accessed October 15, 2019).

108 Questar Corporation, price catalog, March 1, 1970.

109 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Sky and Telescope, April 1970, inside front cover.

110 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Sky and Telescope, April 1970, inside front cover.

111 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Sky and Telescope, April 1970, inside front cover.

112 As of February 4, 2021, the latest example known to the author to include the initial redesign of Questar’s leather carrying case that appeared in the late 1960s is #0-CV-4350-BB, built in 1970 (“Questar,” Astromart, November 14, 2008, https://astromart.com/classifieds/astromart-classifieds/telescope-catadioptric/show/questar-now-sold-thank-you-all-very-much, accessed February 4, 2021).

113 Rodger Gordon in discussion with the author, August 15 and October 7, 2020; Bill Swan, “A Sharp Eye for Business: Yeier Builds a Precision Optics Empire,” Ithaca Times, November 3, 2010, https://www.ithaca.com/news/local_news/a-sharp-eye-for-business/article_db43dc3a-0d4f-5ea8-aaa1-5ed6c50a2a4d.html, accessed October 7, 2020.

114 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Sky and Telescope, April 1971, inside front cover.

115 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Scientific American, June 1971, 55.

116 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Scientific American, June 1971, 55.

117 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Scientific American, June 1971, 55.

118 Questar Corporation, price catalog, 1971.

119 “Questar Vernonscope Eyepiece Canisters / Metal Protective Tubes of 1971,” Company Seven, n.d., http://www.company7.com/library/questar/q1971canisters.html, accessed February 3, 2021.

120 As of October 25, 2021, the last Questar known to the author to have the original Questar eyepieces with Japanese-made lenses is #1-4699, built in 1971 (Robert Llewellyn, email message to author, October 25, 2021).

121 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Natural History, June-July 1972, 9.

122 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Natural History, October 1972, 109.

123 Jim Perkins, “Questar Serial Number Systems” (unpublished manuscript, August 20, 2020), typescript.

124 Questar Corporation, price catalog, 1972. As of February 3, 2021, the earliest Questar known to the author to have the early Questar Brandon eyepieces is #2-DP-5304-BB, built in 1972 (“Questar Duplex ++,” Astromart, August 4, 2017, https://astromart.com/classifieds/astromart-classifieds/telescope-catadioptric/show/questar-duplex-413969, accessed February 3, 2021).

125 Questar Corporation, price catalog, 1972.

126 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Sky and Telescope, March 1973, inside front cover.

127 Questar Corporation, Instruments and Accessories catalog, 1973, revision 3.

128 Questar Corporation, price catalog, revised printing 1973, no. 3; Questar Corporation, advertisement, Sky and Telescope, September 1974, inside front cover; Questar Corporation, advertisement, Scientific American, September 1974, 208.

129 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Scientific American, December 1974, 167.

130 As of February 3, 2021, the last Questar known to the author to have the early Questar Brandon eyepieces is #4-CV-DP-5719-BB, built in 1974 (“Questar Duplex Telescope 3.5inch,” Astromart, August 2, 2016, https://astromart.com/classifieds/astromart-classifieds/telescope-catadioptric/show/questar-duplex-telescope-35inch, accessed February 3, 2021).

131 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Scientific American, October 1975, 137; Questar Corporation, advertisement, Industrial Research, October 1975, 102.

132 Questar Corporation, “Optical Systems for Special Applications,” 1975.

133 Questar Corporation, 1977, Catadioptric Lens System, U.S. Patent 4,061,420, filed May 6, 1976, and issued December 6, 1977, https://patents.google.com/patent/US4061420, accessed June 9, 2020.

134 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Modern Photography, August 1976, 12.

135 Jim Perkins, “Questar Serial Number Systems” (unpublished manuscript, August 20, 2020), typescript.

136 Jim Perkins, “Questar Serial Number Systems” (unpublished manuscript, August 20, 2020), typescript.

137 Questar Corporation, 1977, Catadioptric Lens System, U.S. Patent 4,061,420, filed May 6, 1976, and issued December 6, 1977, https://patents.google.com/patent/US4061420, accessed June 9, 2020.

138 Ben Langlotz, online forum posting, Cloudy Nights, June 12, 2017, https://www.cloudynights.com/topic/580599-questar-design-change-history/?p=7935420, accessed July 11, 2019.

139 Jim Perkins, “Questar Serial Number Systems” (unpublished manuscript, August 20, 2020), typescript.

140 Questar Corporation, 1978, Dual Focal Length Objective, U.S. Patent 4,235,508, filed July 17, 1978, and issued November 25, 1980, https://patents.google.com/patent/US4235508, accessed August 28, 2020.

141 Questar Corporation, Instruments and Accessories catalog, 1978.

142 Questar Corporation, Instruments and Accessories catalog, 1988.

143 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Sky and Telescope, August 1979, inside front cover.

144 Alt-Telescopes-Questar Majordomo list message, December 29, 1997, digest 109, https://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/Questar/files/Alt-Telescopes-Questar%20Digests/, accessed October 14, 2019.

145 Alt-Telescopes-Questar Majordomo list message, December 29, 1997, digest 109, https://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/Questar/files/Alt-Telescopes-Questar%20Digests/, accessed October 14, 2019.

146 “Questar Products Index & Overview Page,” Company Seven, n.d., http://www.company7.com/questar/index.html, accessed November 5, 2019.

147 Questar Corporation, 1978, Dual Focal Length Objective, U.S. Patent 4,235,508, filed July 17, 1978, and issued November 25, 1980, https://patents.google.com/patent/US4235508, accessed August 28, 2020.

148 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Scientific American, October 1980, 187.

149 Questar Corporation, Instruments and Accessories catalog, 1980.

150 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Sky and Telescope, January 1981, inside front cover; Questar Corporation, advertisement, Astronomy, January 1981, 63.

151 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Sky and Telescope, June 1981, inside front cover; Questar Corporation, advertisement, Scientific American, June 1981, 48.

152 “Questar Products Index & Overview Page,” Company Seven, n.d., http://www.company7.com/questar/index.html, accessed November 5, 2019.

153 Ben Langlotz, online forum posting, Cloudy Nights, June 12, 2017, https://www.cloudynights.com/topic/580599-questar-design-change-history/?p=7935420, accessed July 11, 2019.

154 Ben Langlotz, online forum posting, Cloudy Nights, June 12, 2017, https://www.cloudynights.com/topic/580599-questar-design-change-history/?p=7935420, accessed February 16, 2021. As of February 16, 2021, the last Questar known to the author to have a side arm logo badge without an “®” symbol is #1-Z-8370-BB, built in 1981 (“Questar 3.5 Zerodor with Broad Band coatings,” Astromart, March 31, 2016, https://astromart.com/classifieds/astromart-classifieds/telescope-catadioptric/show/questar-35-zerodor-with-broad-band-coatings, accessed February 16, 2021).

155 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Industrial Research & Development, May 1982, 200.

156 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Sky and Telescope, February 1983, inside front cover.

157 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Scientific American, June 1983, 120; Questar Corporation, advertisement, Biomedical Communications, June 1983, 10.

158 Billydee, online forum posting, Cloudy Nights, November 16, 2017, https://www.cloudynights.com/topic/598740-fast-focus-questar/?p=8218101, accessed April 22, 2021; Ben Langlotz, online forum posting, Cloudy Nights, August 21 2019, https://www.cloudynights.com/topic/673398-fast-focus-ii-technical-analysis/, accessed April 22, 2021.

159 Questar Corporation, “Eyepieces Used by Questar,” n.d., http://www.questarcorporation.com/eyepiece.htm, accessed July 3, 2019.

160 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Industrial Research & Development, June 1984, 307.

161 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Industrial Research & Development, June 1984, 307.

162 Ben Langlotz, online forum posting, Cloudy Nights, June 12, 2017, https://www.cloudynights.com/topic/580599-questar-design-change-history/?p=7935420, accessed July 11, 2019.

163 Ben Langlotz, online forum posting, Cloudy Nights, June 12, 2017, https://www.cloudynights.com/topic/580599-questar-design-change-history/?p=7935420, accessed July 11, 2019. The latest example known to the author to include the redesigned case that appeared in the early 1970s is #2-DP-Z-8498-BB, built in 1982 (“Questar Duplex, Zerodur, Broadband,” Astromart, February 2, 2010, https://astromart.com/classifieds/astromart-classifieds/telescope-catadioptric/show/questar-duplex-zerodur-broadband-pending-david, accessed February 4, 2021).

164 “The Questar 12 Telescope,” Company Seven, n.d., http://www.company7.com/library/questar/q12.html, accessed February 28, 2021.

165 Ben Langlotz, online forum posting, Cloudy Nights, October 7, 2019, https://www.cloudynights.com/topic/580599-questar-design-change-history/?p=9689859, accessed October 7, 2019; architel, online forum posting, Cloudy Nights, October 7, 2019, https://www.cloudynights.com/topic/580599-questar-design-change-history/?p=9690518, accessed October 7, 2019.

166 Questar Corporation, 1988, Dual Axis Optical System, U.S. Patent 4,728,770, filed April 27, 1987, and issued March 1, 1988, https://patents.google.com/patent/US4728770, accessed August 28, 2020.

167 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Scientific American, September 1987, 88B.

168 Questar Corporation, Instruments and Accessories catalog, 1987.

169 Questar Corporation, 1988, Dual Axis Optical System, U.S. Patent 4,728,770, filed April 27, 1987, and issued March 1, 1988, https://patents.google.com/patent/US4728770, accessed August 28, 2020.

170 As of October 25, 2021, the last Questar Field Model known to the author to have its specifications indicated on a triangle sticker afixed to the side of its control box is F-3904-BB, built in 1988 (“Questar 3.5 Field Model (SOLD),” Astromart, July 21, 2009, https://astromart.com/classifieds/astromart-classifieds/telescope-catadioptric/show/questar-35-field-model-sold, accessed October 25, 2021).

171 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Scientific American, April 1989, 9.

172 Jim Perkins, “Questar Serial Number Systems” (unpublished manuscript, August 20, 2020), typescript.

173 Questar Corporation, Instruments and Accessories catalog, 1989.

174 As of December 19, 2021, the latest Questar known to the author to have its serial number hand-etched into its base plate is #9-9754-BB, built in 1989 (“Questar 3.5" Mak (Standard -?) - SN: 9-9754-BB,” Cloudy Nights, December 18, 2021, https://www.cloudynights.com/classifieds/item/280010-questar-35-mak-standard-sn-9-9754-bb/, accessed December 19, 2021).

175 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Scientific American, March 1990, 127.

176 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Scientific American, March 1990, 127.

177 Questar Corporation, “Questar Serial Number Systems,” n.d., https://www.questarcorporation.com/start.htm, accessed September 30, 2019.

178 “Questar Vinyl-clad Carrying Case,” Company Seven, n.d., http://www.company7.com/questar/products/quevinylcase.html, accessed September 20, 2019.

179 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Astronomy, September 1991, 31.

180 Questar Corporation, price list, November 1991.

181 Questar Corporation, price list, November 1991.

182 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Sky and Telescope, December 1991, inside front cover.

183 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Sky and Telescope, December 1991, inside front cover.

184 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Sky and Telescope, December 1991, inside front cover.

185 Questar Corporation, “Product Proposal [and] Initial Specification: 16cm Maksutov Astronomical Telescope” (unpublished manuscript, March 20, 1992), typescript.

186 Questar Corporation, “Eyepieces Used by Questar,” n.d., http://www.questarcorporation.com/eyepiece.htm, accessed July 3, 2019.

187 Questar Corporation, price list, February 1996.

188 Questar Corporation, Questar Seven price list, January 1997.

189 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Sky and Telescope, September 1998, 97.

190 Questar Corporation, 2001, Stereoscopic, Long-distance Microscope, U.S. Patent 6,256,143 B1, filed February 19, 1999, and issued July 3, 2001, https://patents.google.com/patent/US6256143B1, accessed December 26, 2020.

191 “Questar 50th Anniversary 3-½ Telescope,” Company Seven, n.d., http://www.company7.com/questar/telescopes/que50thanniversary.html, accessed July 27, 2019.

192 Ben Langlotz, online forum posting, Cloudy Nights, March 19, 2020, https://www.cloudynights.com/topic/628806-the-perfect-questar-setup/?p=10053098, accessed March 19, 2020.

193 Ben Langlotz, online forum posting, Cloudy Nights, June 12, 2017, https://www.cloudynights.com/topic/580599-questar-design-change-history/?p=7935420, accessed July 11, 2019.

194 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Sky and Telescope, August 2000, 71.

195 “Questar 50th Anniversary 3-½ Telescope,” Company Seven, n.d., http://www.company7.com/questar/telescopes/que50thanniversary.html, accessed July 27, 2019.

196 Questar Corporation, 2001, Stereoscopic, Long-distance Microscope, U.S. Patent 6,256,143 B1, filed February 19, 1999, and issued July 3, 2001, https://patents.google.com/patent/US6256143B1, accessed December 26, 2020.

197 Jim Perkins, “Questar Serial Number Systems” (unpublished manuscript, August 20, 2020), typescript.

198 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Sky and Telescope, September 2002, 9.

199 Questar Corporation, 3.5" telescope and accessory price list, June 2002.

200 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Sky and Telescope, January 2003, 143.

201 Jim Perkins, “Questar Serial Number Systems” (unpublished manuscript, August 20, 2020), typescript.

202 Jim Perkins, “Questar Serial Number Systems” (unpublished manuscript, August 20, 2020), typescript.

203 Questar Corporation, “German Equatorial Mount Instruction Manual,” February 2005, https://groups.io/g/Questar/topic/78988338, accessed December 19, 2020.

204 Jim Perkins, “Questar Serial Number Systems” (unpublished manuscript, August 20, 2020), typescript.

205 Jim Perkins, “Questar Serial Number Systems” (unpublished manuscript, August 20, 2020), typescript.

206 Jim Perkins, “Questar Serial Number Systems” (unpublished manuscript, August 20, 2020), typescript.

207 Jim Perkins, “Questar Serial Number Systems” (unpublished manuscript, August 20, 2020), typescript.

208 Jim Perkins, “Questar Serial Number Systems” (unpublished manuscript, August 20, 2020), typescript.

209 medpeds, online forum posting, Cloudy Nights, January 18, 2020, https://www.cloudynights.com/topic/691088-leather-case/?p=9925058, accessed April 8, 2021.

210 Jim Perkins, “Questar Serial Number Systems” (unpublished manuscript, August 20, 2020), typescript.