§ 4.3. Marketing and Sales
Gregory Gross

§ 4.3. Marketing and Sales

On This Page

  1. Marketing Channels
  2. Advertising Themes
  3. Pricing and Sales

After Lawrence Braymer’s death in 1965, Marguerite Braymer took over Questar’s marketing operations as part of her ownership of the company.[1] Similar to her approach with keeping the ship on the same course it had already been on prior to her husband’s passing, Marguerite maintained all of the essential features of Questar’s marketing. She also added a few tweaks to keep it fresh.

Her approach worked. Throughout the late 1960s and early 1970s, the company’s sales continued to strengthen, and Questar continued to develop its relationship with its clients.

Marketing Channels

Magazine Advertising

After Questar established what became a long-standing connection with Sky and Telescope, Natural History, and Scientific American magazines in the 1950s, the company continued under Marguerite Braymer’s leadership to maintain its presence in these publications. The format was remarkably consistent: full-page advertisements ran on the inside front cover of Sky and Telescope while smaller promotions appeared within Natural History and Scientific American. After using a two-thirds-page format in those latter two magazines for years, Questar began using promotions covering one-third of a page beginning with its advertisement in the June-July 1972 issue of Natural History.[2]

Questar Booklets

1968 Questar booklet cover
The cover of Questar’s updated booklet, whose availability the company announced in February 1968. Questar Corporation

More noticeable changes occurred in the company’s finely printed marketing literature. The Questar booklets of this era represented a departure from the dense expository form of prior editions. Printed almost fully in color, these new booklets were filled with images of astronomical, natural, and terrestrial subjects. They were a compelling demonstration of the resolving power of the Questar telescope.

In February 1968, the company announced its newest edition, which “contains more than 100 photographs by Questar owners, 50 in color.”[3] The booklet’s physical size also grew. Whereas earlier versions of the Questar booklet measured six inches wide and nine inches tall, this new edition measured seven and a half inches wide and ten inches tall. Sometime around 1969, the company made minor revisions to its booklet to reflect new developments with the Questar Seven, most notably the addition of a tabletop fork mount.[4]

Questar advertisement, <em>Sky and Telescope</em>, March 1972
Questar announced a new edition of its booklet in the March 1972 issue of Sky and Telescope. Questar Corporation

A few years later, the company followed up with yet another substantial overhaul and expansion of its booklet. In March 1972, Questar announced that the new 32-page edition was available. It featured a selection of many new photographs Questar owners had continued to submit to the company.[5] Although its physical dimensions grew even more—this new edition measured eight and a half inches wide and eleven inches tall—the company aired out its copy. Questar seemed to be intent upon letting the images speak for themselves. It also identified various friends of the company by name and told their personal stories in greater detail.

Price Catalogs

Through 1971, Questar continued the practice it had begun in 1964 by printing two separate pieces of literature: its extended booklet and a more concise one-sheet price catalog. Doing so granted the company more flexibility by using the latter to introduce new products and make price changes as necessary without having to reprint its high-quality, multi-page booklet.

1972 Instruments and Accessory brochure and Price Catalog
The 1972 Instruments and Accessory brochure and Price Catalog. Questar Corporation

In 1972, Questar split the content it had been including in its price catalog into two pieces: a more detailed six-page Instruments and Accessory brochure, which contained detailed descriptions of the company’s growing collection of products, and a brief two-page Price Catalog.[6]

In 1974, Questar merged its price list back into a single Instruments and Accessory brochure.[7] New revisions would appear as needed.

Peter Dodd and Q Camera

Card announcing the opening of Q Camera in Daytona Beach, Florida
Card announcing the opening of Q Camera in Daytona Beach, Florida. Questar Corporation

In the early to mid-1970s, Questar opened another front in its overall marketing campaign. Peter Dodd, Marguerite Braymer’s son from her first marriage, moved to Daytona Beach, Florida, in his mid- to late 30s and opened Q Camera. In doing so, he extended Questar’s in-person marketing while perhaps also seeking more clement weather than what southeastern Pennsylvania could offer. Taking up retail space at the newly built Daytona Mall on the northwest corner of what is now U.S. Highway 92 and North Nova Road, Dodd later moved his shop up the road to another commercial venue a few blocks away.[8]

In the company’s magazine advertising, Questar first mentioned its new showroom in the April 1974 issue of Scientific American.[9] A few months later, the company suggested that “Peter Dodd will be happy to have you drop in and say hello. In addition to the display of Questar telescopes he has a selection of fine cameras and lenses, as well as fresh film and all the other accessories you might need.”[10]

Questar last mentioned Q Camera in its August 1975 advertisement in Sky and Telescope,[11] although Dodd’s shop probably existed in Daytona Beach well after that.

Advertising Themes

Questar advertisement, <em>Sky and Telescope</em>, December 1969
Questar’s core advertising themes—quality, convenience, and versatility—appeared in the December 1969 issue of Sky and Telescope. Questar Corporation

The core themes of Questar’s advertising—quality, convenience, and versatility—continued to appear in the company’s marketing during the late 1960s and early 1970s. “Questar has been called the instrument of many miracles,” the company boasted in April 1966. “The major miracle, of course, is the exquisite perfection of the optics which permit such astonishing resolution in an instrument that is a miniaturized version of the conventional long-tubed cumbersome telescope.”[12] Slipping out of its case fully assembled, the instrument packed a full set of features into a compact package and was effortlessly useful for a multitude of purposes. “Questar is a telescope for sky watchers, people watchers, and nature lovers, and those not content to be mere spectators can capture Questar’s magnificent detail on film.”[13]

Education

In addition to its core themes, the company put new emphasis on educational applications. From the beginning, Questar had always made the case for its telescope’s usefulness in schools and community outreach. But in the late 1960s and early 1970s, it made far more of an explicit marketing pitch to educators.

Questar advertisement, <em>Sky and Telescope</em>, January 1967
Questar made its case that its telescope was a valuable teaching tool. Questar Corporation via archive.org

In September 1966, the company declared that “the Questar telescope is a valuable teaching tool.” As it sold more telescopes to schools and colleges, the company argued that it made sense to buy ten Questars with the same amount of money that one could spend building an observatory with one large instrument. It relayed a testimonial from Curtis Gable, an eighth-grade science teacher who used his own Questar during demonstrations. He later helped to develop a program for other science teachers and students whose interest drove them to form an astronomy club. Participants were active with presenting slide shows and engaging in frequent observing sessions with a variety of telescopes including the Questar. Students were required to complete extensive training before being allowed to use a telescope.[14]

With heavy use, it was inevitable that a school’s Questar would be sent in for service, although the company claimed that it rarely saw problems more serious than normal wear and tear. Hoping to cultivate a special relationship, Questar even broke with its longstanding resistance to offering discounts by presenting educational institutions with a special rate for service and repair.[15]

Questar advertisement, <em>Planetarium</em>, March 21, 1972
Questar advertisement appearing in The Planetarium of March 21, 1973. Questar Corporation via ips-planetarium.org

Other instances of the company’s increasing commitment to educational markets appeared. In 1972, Questar squarely targeted instructors in an advertisement it ran in The Planetarium, a publication of the International Society of Planetarium Educators. “Questar’s use as a teaching tool in schools and colleges has become one of its most important functions. Not only does its superb resolution and range of sizes provide all the telescope a science or astronomy class needs, but it is a real favorite with both students and faculty, who no longer have to cope with great cumbersome, trembling instruments. Imagine a rock-steady, fully-mounted, portable observatory that you can put away in the close with the microscopes!”[16]

Astrophotography

As the 1970s arrived, Questar adjusted its advertising. It pulled back from its use of lengthy blocks of copy and relied more upon eye-catching photographs that did most of the talking. Just as the company had recently worked with a variety of individuals to develop numerous accessories for photography, Questar placed new emphasis on all kinds of imaging. In earlier years, whatever images that appeared in advertisements were most often limited to well-lit subjects: the Moon and the Sun, wildlife, and terrestrial objects. But as Questar’s photographic accessories became more sophisticated, so too did instances of deep-space astrophotography become far more numerous in the company’s advertising.

Deep Space Imaging

Questar advertisement, <em>Sky and Telescope</em>, August 1971
Hubert Entrop’s photograph of the Great Orion Nebula appeared in Questar’s August 1971 advertisement in Sky and Telescope. Questar Corporation

During the last half of the 1960s, the company used its magazine advertising to feature the wide-field astrophotography of Robert Little, who mounted a camera piggyback onto his Questar and allowed it to track with the apparent movement of the night sky. In 1971, Questar began featuring images of deep-space objects taken directly through the telescope itself.

Having played a key role in developing the Starguide, Hubert Entrop’s astrophotography began making regular appearances in Questar’s advertising. Once example appeared in Sky and Telescope in the summer of 1971. Using a Field Model piggybacked onto his Duplex, Entrop captured an image of the Great Orion Nebula at prime focus.[17] Although out of season, the image of this wintertime showcase object Questar included in its advertisement demonstrated possibilities for challenging astrophotography targets.

Lunar Imaging

Questar advertisement, <em>Sky and Telescope</em>, August 1972
A visually striking advertisement highlighting Questar’s lunar imaging capabilities appeared in the April 1972 issue of Sky and Telescope. Questar Corporation

Questar did not neglect to feature images of bright objects like the Moon. In the July 1971 issue of Sky and Telescope, the company included a detailed photograph of lunar craters Deslandres and Arzachel that Robert Richardson took in April 1971. Questar encouraged readers to compare it with another image that was captured with a five-inch refractor and that appeared in the September 1966 issue of Sky and Telescope. “We are always delighted with photographs of this quality. Questar shows its superb performance even when compared to an instrument that has half again as much theoretical resolving power and twice the light-gathering power.”[18]

A similar advertisement appeared in the January 1972 issue of Sky and Telescope. Questar highlighted one photograph by Hubert Entrop that highlighted details in the lunar terminator. The company again encouraged comparisons with other photographs captured by large telescopes at professional observatories.[19]

And in April 1972, Questar altogether omitted written copy from its advertisement in Sky and Telescope.[20] The detailed full-page image of a sea of lunar craters said all there was to say.

Planetary Imaging

Photographs of the Moon and the planets in the 1972 Questar booklet
Questar featured photographs of the Moon and the planets in the company’s 1972 booklet. Questar Corporation via wiki.telescopeclassics.com

With the added light grasp and better resolution that was possible with the Questar Seven, planetary imaging gained prominence in the company’s marketing literature. In its 1972 booklet, Questar featured several photographs of solar system objects that Dorothy and Ralph Davis, Robert Richardson, and others had submitted to the company.[21]

In the September 1974 issue of Sky and Telescope, the company highlighted what was possible even with its 3.5-inch telescope. Displaying a photograph of Jupiter by Robert Richardson, Questar marveled at “detail that seems almost unbelievable through a telescope of only 3 1/2" aperture, but you become accustomed to that kind of resolution when you own a Questar.”[22]

Solar Imaging

Solar imaging and observing received its fair share of attention in Questar’s advertising during the late 1960s and early 1970s.

Questar advertisement, <em>Sky and Telescope</em>, December 1971
Questar presented Hubert Entrop’s solar photography in this December 1971 advertisement in Sky and Telescope. Questar Corporation

In April 1966, the company reused a layout that was nearly identical to one that had first appeared in the May 1959 issue of Sky and Telescope. Questar retold the story of how Dorothy and Ralph Davis used their telescope at sea level to capture an image that plainly showed solar granulation with a level of detail that was quite remarkable for 3.5 inches of aperture. Although they took their exposure without a solar filter attached to their instrument, Questar reiterated its recommendation that the full-aperture solar filter was best for capturing high-resolution images.[23]

Not limiting himself to deep-space astrophotography, Hubert Entrop also made his contribution to Questar’s solar-themed promotions. In the Sky and Telescope for November 1971, his image of the Sun appeared in an advertisement that directed readers to view another photograph of the Sun by Entrop in the magazine’s September 1969 issue. Along with sunspot detail, faculae are also plainly visible in the image.[24] Questar later revealed that Entrop used the same unfiltered method that the Davises used, a rather dangerous method that the company cautioned should be used only by the most experienced observers.[25]

Solar Eclipse Chasing

The first half of the 1970s saw four total solar eclipses, and Questar was at the ready to highlight how its highly portable telescopes were particularly well suited for chasing them.

Questar advertisement, <em>Sky and Telescope</em>, May 1970
Robert Little witnessed the solar eclipse of March 7, 1970, with a Questar Seven. Questar Corporation

On March 7, 1970, a total solar eclipse was visible in Mexico and across much of the U.S. East Coast. Questar was quick to underscore its role in the event. In the May 1970 issue of Sky and Telescope, the company’s advertisement pointed out how many of its telescopes “were at work photographing the eclipse, with individual owners and university teams stationed throughout the path of totality. Coverage by the television networks was accomplished with Questars, both from the ground and from aircraft.” Life magazine for March 20, 1970, included a photograph of the eclipse that Charles Wyckoff captured with a 3.5-inch Questar.[26]

With hope that the excitement of the March 1970 eclipse was still fresh in the minds of potential buyers, Questar suggested in May 1972 that its telescope was well suited to travel with them to the next eclipse, which was due over eastern Canada in July. “We hope we’ll see you there, with your Questar! If you don’t have yours yet, we can deliver one to you immediately.”[27]

Questar advertisement, <em>Sky and Telescope</em>, May 1973
Questar highlighted the July 1972 solar eclipse in its advertising. Questar Corporation

After the Moon’s shadow passed over Canada on July 10, 1972, Questar assembled another advertisement featuring a photograph of the solar corona by David Baysinger. “Questars were stationed all along the path of totality and from those places where clear skies prevailed, beautiful photographs are coming in.” Tying its product to the next eclipse, which was to pass over Africa the following year, Questar reminded readers to “be sure to take along this unparalleled convenience and versatility.”[28]

In the wake of the total solar eclipse of June 30, 1973, Questar benefited from some free publicity. In its roundup of the eclipse that appeared in its September 1973 issue, Sky and Telescope published a photograph by David Baysinger of Mark Peterson, a curator at the Gates Planetarium in Denver, Colorado. Peterson was shown in an exotic location demonstrating his Questar to a group of Kenyans at Lake Rudolf.[29] The next month, the magazine published additional photographs including a pair that depicted the chromosphere and inner corona. Allen E. Shepherd had taken both with his Questar Seven on board the ship Canberra.[30]

Questar advertisement, <em>Sky and Telescope</em>, October 1973
Questar featured the solar eclipse of June 30, 1973, in its advertising. Questar Corporation

The company used its magazine advertising to do its own coverage of the June 1973 eclipse. In Sky and Telescope the following October, Questar highlighted two parties who photographed the event. At Akjoujt in Mauritania, Questar employee Paul Shenkle assisted cinematographer David Quaid in filming the eclipse. And at Lake Rudolf, David Baysinger and Mark Peterson captured their own images of the Moon passing in front of the Sun.[31]

On December 13, 1974, another total solar eclipse occurred, this one off the southwest coast of Australia. In its coverage of the event, Sky and Telescope featured an image taken by R. Stevenson of Walnut Creek, California, of a row of camera equipment ready to photograph the eclipse onboard a Boeing 727 passenger jet. In the foreground was a Questar telescope.[32]

Nature and Terrestrial Observing

In its 1968 booklet, the company wrote that Questar’s great power of magnification often astounded those who are used to typical spotting scopes. From a porch or garden table, the world around you is yours.[33]

Robert Little’s urban imagery in the 1968 Questar booklet
The urban imagery Robert Little contributed to the 1968 Questar booklet. Robert Little/Questar Corporation

Continuing with a visual device that the company had used since the 1950s, Questar showcased pairs of images revealing wide-field perspective and high-magnification detail as evidence of the resolving power of the company’s telescopes. As a thoroughgoing New Yorker, Robert Little continued to make his contributions by showing what was possible with urban terrestrial observing with a Questar. In its 1968 booklet, the company reproduced three pairs of photographs Little made of the Empire State Building, a cargo ship, and a helicopter taking off from the roof of the Pan Am Building.[34]

Other Questar owners made their contributions, too. Appearing in Natural History and Scientific American magazines, advertisements depicted close-up views of a yellow-shafted flicker in its nest in a dead palm tree,[35] a blue heron if the field,[36] Coleman Glacier at Mt. Baker in Washington State,[37] the Confederate memorial at Stone Mountain near Atlanta,[38] a bald eagle on a cold February day with a 15 mile-per-hour wind,[39] a field of bighorn sheep,[40] and a water turkey.[41] More often than not, Dorothy and Ralph Davis were the photographers behind these images.

Nature images by Michael Clark in Questar’s 1972 booklet
A trio of close-up nature images by Michael Clark appeared in Questar’s 1972 booklet. Michael T. Clark/Questar Corporation

Covering the pages of Questar’s booklets and magazine advertisements of the late 1960s and early 1970s was a proliferation of high-magnification images depicting many types of wildlife. In addition to work by the Davises, the nature photography of Robert Little, Hubert Entrop, Michael Clark, and Dale Rex Coman appeared in Questar’s marketing literature and magazine advertisements. In the November 1973 issue of Natural History, the company asked, “Wouldn’t you enjoy observing wildlife so conveniently; seeing and photographing it, at whatever the distance, in amazing detail that only Questar can give you?”[42]

Questar advertisement, <em>Scientific American</em>, June 1974
Questar photographs the firefighters. Questar Corporation

Questar owners also documented action-filled scenes as they unfolded. In October 1965, Pope Paul VI became the first pontiff to visit the Western Hemisphere.[43] The following April, Questar told the story of New York Herald Tribune photographer Bill Sauro, who used his Questar to capture an image of Pope Paul delivering an address at St. Patrick’s Cathedral.[44] In June 1974, Questar featured pictures by James Keyworth showing dramatic scenes of firefighters battling a forest fire near a NORAD installation in Quebec.[45] The company followed up with a four-page brochure entitled “Questar Photographs the Firefighters,” which contained more of Keyworth’s high-magnification photography.[46] These examples belied dismissals about an instrument whose long focal length may not have made it an obvious candidate for such work.

Testimonials

Questar continued its use of owner testimonials, a practice it had followed since Lawrence Braymer’s good friend and advertising mentor Frank Godwin had encouraged him to do so. When she took over the company, Marguerite Braymer followed suit. She also benefited from the company’s strong network of friends who eagerly shared their experiences with their Questar telescopes.

Questar advertisement, <em>Sky and Telescope</em>, December 1966
Rodger Gordon’s first testimonial letter to appear in Questar’s magazine advertising. Questar Corporation

As perhaps the company’s foremost testimonial writer, Rodger Gordon contributed numerous accounts of his evenings with his Questar telescope. Not long after he acquired one in April 1966,[47] he wrote the first of what became many letters to the company. In its December 1966 advertisement in Sky and Telescope, Questar published a letter that Gordon wrote the prior July in which he heaped praise onto his new instrument. He reported splitting double stars separated by 0.4 seconds of arc or less, saw subtle detail in Jupiter’s cloud belts in spite of poor seeing, had an amazing experience detecting gaps in Saturn’s ring system that could not be more than 0.3 to 0.5 arcseconds wide, observed fine craterlets on the Moon, and even observed a variety of deep space objects including the Ring Nebula and globular clusters M13 and M5.[48]

Other letters came in over the years, and Questar gladly featured them in its magazine advertising. In the August 1968 issue of Sky and Telescope, the company relayed Rodger Gordon’s observation of a diagonal streak across Jupiter’s Great Red Spot, an account that was confirmed by observatories with much larger instruments. “It may be that an important discovery has been made with Questar’s 3 1/2 inches of aperture!”[49] Under the headline “Questar Keeps Talking about Resolution,” the company’s April 1971 advertisement in Sky and Telescope reproduced another of Gordon’s letters in which he raved about the resolving power of his Questar.[50] Having acquired a Questar Seven before the end of 1972, Gordon offered his apprasial of its performance during a recent opposition of Mars.[51] And in the Sky and Telescope for September 1974, Questar again shared another letter from Gordon, “our old ALPO friend” who described the success he had with seeing high-contrast detail on Jupiter’s disk with his 3.5-inch Questar.[52]

Questar advertisement, <em>Sky and Telescope</em>, October 1975
Questar received many other letters on the performance of the company’s telescope including one from Dick McCarrick of Phoenix, Arizona. Questar Corporation

Other Questar owners shared their thoughts, too. In its 1972 booklet, for instance, the company reproduced a letter from Robert Smith of Los Angeles. He claimed lengthy experience as an amateur photographer but almost no experience as an amateur astronomer. Fifteen years prior he had had a “traumatic and colorful experience” with a three-inch achromat, and he convinced himself that astronomy was perhaps not for him. Upon acquiring a Questar, however, he realized he was wrong. He expressed how impressed he was with its workmanship, superb image, portability, and convenience.[53]

Many other individuals sent the company letters with their praise for their Questars.

Pricing and Sales

Between 1967 and 1975, Questar adjusted prices for their various 3.5-inch telescopes numerous times. Having kept the Standard Questar’s cost at $995 since 1955, the company raised it to $1065 in 1967, $1140 in 1970, $1240 in 1973, and $1315 in 1974. Upon introducing it to the market in 1964, Questar initially set the price for its Field Model at $795 before increasing it to $865 in 1970. After first offering the Duplex Questar for $1245 in 1966, the company raised its price to $1315 the next year, $1390 in 1970, and $1465 in 1974.[54]

For the average person, investing that amount of money into a telescope still represented a substantial commitment. The purchase of a Standard Questar would have consumed approximately 13% of the median U.S. household’s annual income, the Field Model 9%, and the Duplex Questar 15%.[55]

But in spite of their high cost, sales of Questar telescopes continued to increase during this period. Between 1966 and 1969, as production shop records indicate, yearly shipments rose by an average of 11%. Although production dipped by 14% in 1970, the number of units that Questar completed every year during the latter half of the 1960s averaged over 500. This included almost 400 Standard Questars (the company did record whether it combined Duplex Questar production into this figure) and over 100 Field Models. Company documentation also indicates the sale of one Questar Seven in 1967, ten in 1968, 22 in 1969, and 16 in 1970.[56]

Similar to prior years, Questar enjoyed a distinguished and increasing list of celebrated and otherwise notable individuals who became the company’s clients. It also saw its product appear on the world stage at numerous exhibitions and events.

Next: § 4.4. Adoption and Influence

← Return to Table of Contents

Notes

1 In his profile of Questar, New Hope Gazette journalist Charles Shaw wrote that Marguerite served as “advertising director for 11 years” after Lawrence Braymer’s death in December 1965 (Charles Shaw, “Larry Braymer: ‘In Quest of the Stars,’” New Hope Gazette, March 14, 1985, 32, https://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/Questar/files/FAQ/, accessed October 15, 2019). Jim Perkins confirmed her role as head of the company’s advertising effort after Lawrence’s passing (Jim Perkins, email message to author, September 28, 2020).

2 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Natural History, June-July 1972, 9.

3 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Sky and Telescope, February 1968, inside front cover; Questar Corporation, advertisement, Natural History, February 1968, 73; Questar Corporation, advertisement, Scientific American, February 1968, 137.

4 Questar Corporation, Questar booklet, circa 1969.

5 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Sky and Telescope, March 1972, inside front cover.

6 Questar Corporation, Instruments and Accessories catalog, 1972; Questar Corporation, price catalog, 1972.

7 Questar Corporation, Instruments and Accessories catalog, 1972, revised 1974.

8 Questar Corporation, “Announcing Q Camera,” n.d.; Questar Corporation, “Are You Going South?” n.d.; Rodger Gordon to the author, September 23, 2020.

9 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Scientific American, April 1974, 121.

10 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Sky and Telescope, September 1974, inside front cover.

11 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Sky and Telescope, August 1975, inside front cover.

12 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Sky and Telescope, April 1966, inside front cover; Questar Corporation, advertisement, Natural History, April 1966, 61; Questar Corporation, advertisement, Scientific American, April 1966, 137.

13 Questar Corporation, Questar booklet, 1968, 3-4, 8.

14 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Sky and Telescope, September 1966, inside front cover.

15 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Sky and Telescope, September 1966, inside front cover.

16 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Planetarium, June 21, 1972, inside front cover.

17 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Sky and Telescope, June 1971, inside front cover.

18 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Sky and Telescope, July 1971, inside front cover.

19 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Sky and Telescope, January 1972, inside front cover.

20 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Sky and Telescope, April 1972, inside front cover.

21 Questar Corporation, Questar booklet, 1972, 2-3, 9.

22 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Sky and Telescope, September 1974, inside front cover.

23 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Sky and Telescope, August 1966, inside front cover.

24 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Sky and Telescope, November 1971, inside front cover.

25 Questar Corporation, Questar booklet, 1972, 7.

26 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Sky and Telescope, May 1970, inside front cover.

27 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Sky and Telescope, May 1972, inside front cover.

28 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Sky and Telescope, October 1972, inside front cover.

29 “The Great Solar Eclipse,” Sky and Telescope, September 1973; “In Memoriam: Industry Veteran Mark Peterson,” Giant Screen Cinema Association, October 6, 2021, https://www.giantscreencinema.com/Newsroom/in-memoriam-industry-veteran-mark-peterson, accessed January 9, 2022.

30 “Eclipse Views,” Sky and Telescope, October 1973, 218-219.

31 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Sky and Telescope, October 1973, inside front cover.

32 “The Australian Eclipse of the Sun,” Sky and Telescope, September 1974, 140.

33 Questar Corporation, Questar booklet, 1968, 6.

34 Questar Corporation, Questar booklet, 1968, 36-37.

35 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Natural History, November 1966, 6; Questar Corporation, advertisement, Scientific American, November 1966, 9.

36 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Natural History, February 1967, 14; Questar Corporation, advertisement, Scientific American, February 1967, 101.

37 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Natural History, February 1968, 73; Questar Corporation, advertisement, Scientific American, February 1968, 137.

38 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Natural History, January 1971, 8; Questar Corporation, advertisement, Scientific American, January 1971, 7.

39 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Natural History, May 1971, 96; Questar Corporation, advertisement, Scientific American, May 1971, 9.

40 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Natural History, October 1972, 109.

41 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Natural History, June-July 1974, 76.

42 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Natural History, November 1973, 124.

43 Emily S. Rueb, “Popes in America,” New York Times, September 18, 2015, https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2015/09/17/nyregion/popes-in-america-listy.html, accessed February 9, 2021.

44 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Sky and Telescope, April 1966, inside front cover; Questar Corporation, advertisement, Natural History, April 1966, 61; Questar Corporation, advertisement, Scientific American, April 1966, 137.

45 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Scientific American, June 1974, 134.

46 Questar Corporation, “Questar Photographs the Firefighters,” 1974.

47 Rodger Gordon in discussion with the author, August 15, 2020.

48 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Sky and Telescope, December 1966, inside front cover.

49 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Sky and Telescope, August 1968, inside front cover.

50 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Sky and Telescope, April 1971, inside front cover.

51 Questar Corporation, Questar booklet, 1972, 28.

52 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Sky and Telescope, September 1974, inside front cover.

53 Questar Corporation, Questar booklet, 1972, 29.

54 Ralph Foss, “Questar_Prices.xls” (unpublished manuscript, February 7, 2014), spreadsheet, https://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/Questar/files/Questar%20Historical%20Prices%20and%20more/, accessed October 15, 2019.

55 “US Median Income by Year,” multpl.com, n.d., https://www.multpl.com/us-median-income/table/by-year, accessed August 14, 2020

56 Questar Corporation, shop sales list (unpublished manuscript, 1958-1970), handwritten.