§ 1.2. Evolution of a Design for the Questar Telescope
Gregory Gross

§ 1.2. Evolution of a Design for the Questar Telescope

On This Page

  1. Braymer and Norbert Schell
  2. Design Elements in Braymer’s Patents

Lawrence Braymer was not shy about taking risks. After years of practicing as an amateur astronomer, his encounter with Dmitri Maksutov’s idea for a compound lens-mirror telescope in 1944 represented a catalyzing moment. It marked the beginning of his progress toward developing his hobby into a serious entrepreneurial undertaking. By 1946, Braymer had abandoned his career as a commercial artist and devoted his full attention to the design and development of what became the Questar telescope.[1] If the market for astronomy gear was as competitive as it is today, his decision undoubtedly showed that he was not afraid to risk his personal fortune by launching his own business.

Questar advertisement, <em>Sky and Telescope</em>, August 1977
Questar looked back on its history in its advertising in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Questar Corporation

The significance of this watershed moment in Braymer’s life was plain even decades later. In an advertisement that first appeared in the July 1977 issue of Sky and Telescope, a copywriter—perhaps Braymer’s wife Marguerite herself—told the story. “He had begun dreaming about the kind of telescope he someday wanted to own, long before such a thing was considered a possibility.” Braymer sought to accomplish no less than seven objectives. First, “there was to be a set of optics so fine that no amount of money, time, or human effort could improve upon it.” Second, the instrument “should be easily portable.” Third, its accessories should be built into it. Fourth, the telescope should be able to equatorially align it with little effort and without the need for a separate tripod. Fifth, the telescope should work just as well for observing nature and examining near-by objects as it did for astronomical observing. Sixth, the design should be photo-visual, enabling the user to take pictures with ease. And seventh, “the instrument must be of rugged construction and vibrationless, without the aggravating oscillations of long-tubed conventional telescopes.” This was Braymer dream, one that average telescope designs available to amateurs in the mid-1940s could not deliver. But when he learned of Maksutov’s catadioptric system, he immediately saw “that this break-through in optics would make possible a miniaturized version of the astronomical telescope which he had for so long wanted to build.” Because of his love for “fine instruments, he designed Questar for himself.”[2]

Braymer put good money and a lot of time where his heart was. By 1954, as the company wrote in its advertisement that appeared in the April 1963 issue of Natural History magazine, he and his collaborators “had spent 8 years and a quarter-million dollars trying various types and sizes by the time this revolutionary design reached the market.”[3] Whether those material resources came from lenders, investors, or his own pocket, Braymer was serious about seeing his project become a reality. He was not alone.

Braymer and Norbert Schell

Throughout the 1930s, Braymer became an increasingly skilled amateur astronomer. He was one of thousands who participated in the ATM movement that began in the 1920s under the shepherding of Albert Ingalls and Russell Porter.

Another likeminded amateur with whom Braymer became acquainted in the mid-1930s was Norbert Schell. A well-known optical designer who lived on the other side of Pennsylvania in Beaver Falls, Schell was famous for producing off-axis parabolic reflectors. He also was an active member of the amateur astronomer community in western Pennsylvania, and he helped lead the Amateur Astronomers Association of Pittsburgh.[4]

After they met, Schell and Braymer engaged in a lengthy correspondence.[5] Before long, they were observing together. Years later, Braymer remembered a particular evening during which he and Schell used an eleven-inch off-axis reflector in foggy but steady conditions to observe for many hours. With their telescope supposedly functioning as if its aperture were twice its actual diameter, they claimed to have cut the Dawes resolution limit in half.[6]

By the time Braymer decided to pursue the creation of a wholly new kind of telescope, his friend Norbert Schell was his right-hand partner who made key contributions to its design. After Braymer completed preliminary sketches in August 1944, Schell began the painstaking work of creating detailed plans for the instrument’s main optics.[7] He also designed the eyepieces and formulated their glass melts.[8] Meanwhile, Braymer worked on solving mechanical problems.[9]

In an era when optical ray tracing was done by hand, Schell demonstrated his advanced abilities to take general concepts and make them real. While the exact nature of their relationship remains unclear—Schell might have been one of Braymer’s business partners, or he could have done his optical design out of pure enjoyment and was happy to assist Braymer as his friend—Schell’s contributions to the emergence of the Questar telescope were essential.[10] While Braymer represented the major driving force who identified an overall concept to pursue, it was Schell who drew up the specific designs on paper. It was a pattern that Braymer would follow in his relationships with others as he built his business over the coming years.

Design Elements in Braymer’s Patents

By 1947, Braymer’s work had advanced to the point where his ideas were mature enough to protect. With the help of his attorney Joseph Denny, he submitted five patent applications under his own name to the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office between November 1947 and March 1949. These documents contain important clues that indicate the evolution of Braymer’s ideas during this period. He described numerous design concepts many of which eventually made their way in some form to the production version of the Questar telescope.

Looking back at that time, Braymer later marveled at the small number of U.S. patents on file that concerned telescope design: only seven. “That’s right, 7 out of 2½ million in nearly a century and a half. It was evident that very few persons had tried to improve the telescope in 7 generations!” But after the Questar telescope appeared on the market in 1954, “another 6 patents, with 54 claims, had been granted to Questar for our innovations.”[11]

Along with registering a trademark, Braymer applied for six patents between November 1947 and September 1954:

Number Title Filing Date Issue Date Used in Production
2,670,656 Telescope Nov 25, 1947 Mar 2, 1954 Yes
2,649,791 Telescope Jun 16, 1948 Aug 25, 1953 Yes
2,628,529 Reflecting Telescope with Auxiliary Optical System Sep 25, 1948 Feb 17, 1953 No
2,753,760 Multiple Image Telescope Sep 25, 1948 Jul 10, 1956 Yes
2,693,032 Telescope Mounting Mar 15, 1949 Nov 2, 1954 No
609,560 Questar Trademark Aug 23, 1954 Jul 26, 1955 Yes
D175,388 Telescope Sep 20, 1954 Aug 23, 1955 Yes

Braymer’s Adaptation of the Maksutov-Cassegrain Design

At the heart of Braymer’s design efforts was Dmitri Maksutov’s basic concept for a catadioptric telescope. Drawing a clear link between this earlier work and his own, Braymer used the opening sentence of his first patent application, which he filed on November 25, 1947, to pay tribute to the article that Maksutov had published in the Journal of the Optical Society of America less than four years earlier.[12]

Key Optical Components

Figure 1 from U.S. Patent #2,670,656
Figure 1 from U.S. Patent #2,670,656 showing the barrel cross-section for Braymer’s telescope. Lawrence Braymer via patents.google.com

In his patent, Braymer generally described the basic features of Maksutov’s work: a telescope with a concave spherical primary mirror positioned at the rear of the instrument and a front-mounted meniscus corrector lens whose positive spherical aberration neutralized the negative spherical aberration of the primary mirror. The corrector lens and the surface of primary mirror “are curved complementary to one another in accordance with the principle of the Maksutov telescope” with “substantially the same effect” as though the surface of the spherical primary mirror was parabolic.[13]

Braymer also called for a secondary mirror whose diameter was as small as possible in order to minimize its obstructing effect and “to secure the maximum brilliance of image.” For reasons that would become important later, it was to be positioned on the inside surface of the corrector lens. The secondary mirror reflected the converging light off the primary mirror and returned it to the rear of the telescope. Its convex shape bent the cone of gathered light into one that was much less steep, thereby substantially increasing the effective focal length and focal ratio of the instrument.[14]

One pleasing feature of this design was its compactness. The instrument, as Braymer wrote, “has a barrel whose length need not exceed three times its diameter and the focal length is approximately eleven times the diameter and three and two-third times the length of the barrel, and produces images of fine detail and brilliancy.”[15]

Primary Mirror Mechanics

For it to be useful, even the cleverest theoretical design must at some point be realized in a physical form. Perhaps the most ingenious part of Braymer’s adaptation of Maksutov’s principles was his design for mounting the primary mirror on a movable support mechanism. While some of its specific features did not get past the drawing board, the essence of Braymer’s invention made its way to the production Questar telescope.

Figures 2 and 3 from U.S. Patent #2,670,656
Figures 2 and 3 from U.S. Patent #2,670,656 showing detail of the rear of Braymer's telescope design. Lawrence Braymer via patents.google.com

Braymer envisioned a primary mirror axially seated on a support collar that was mounted on a central masking tube whose length was adjustable. By advancing and retracting the forward length of the tube toward and away from the secondary mirror, one could make adjustments to the effective aperture of the instrument and compensate for an unsteady atmosphere. “The production of clear images under unfavorable conditions is thereby facilitated,” he wrote. It was a system that was equally advantageous both for nighttime use and especially for solar observing when daytime seeing conditions often caused problems.[16] From an early point, Braymer was keenly interested in leveraging the advantages of a small aperture for good performance even under an unsteady atmosphere. It was a feature that he continuously highlighted in his later advertising copy.

While a central masking tube with an adjustable length was a feature that did not make its way to the production Questar telescope, the inner compression spring that loaded its action served another purpose that did see implementation, albeit in another form. As light from the secondary mirror passed through this tube on its way out of the opening in telescope’s rear enclosure, whatever low-angle light rays that strayed from the main path of focused light were intercepted by the spring’s edges.[17] The system was the progenitor of the knife-edge baffles inside the central tube of the final product, a system that helped to improve image quality.

Figure 7 from U.S. Patent #2,670,656
Figure 7 from U.S. Patent #2,670,656 showing Braymer’s design for the primary mirror’s contact point with its support collar. Lawrence Braymer via patents.google.com

To enhance stability and prevent optical distortion resulting from changes in temperature, the mirror never made direct contact with its support. Instead, a layer of thermal insulation separated the two.[18]

Rather than using a focusing system like those found on traditional reflectors and refractors, one that involved moving the eyepiece, Braymer instead designed a two-speed mechanism that achieved focus by moving the primary mirror. By shifting it along the axis of the central masking tube, one could focus “on objects at any distance from infinity to a few feet without moving the ocular.”[19] This was probably the first time someone had thought to devise a moving mirror focusing system, one that is used in most catadioptric telescopes today.[20] Moreover, Braymer’s design laid the groundwork for making his instrument useful both as a telescope for long-distance astronomical and terrestrial observing and as a “long-distance microscope,” as he later termed it, for close-up work.

Optical Accessories

Braymer developed ideas for ways in which his telescope could function both day and night.

Figures 4, 5, and 6 from U.S. Patent #2,670,656
Figures 4, 5, and 6 from U.S. Patent #2,670,656 showing Braymer's design for a solar filter. Lawrence Braymer via patents.google.com

Beyond the traditional use of a telescope for astronomical observing, he planned for his instrument to double as a solar telescope. He detailed the construction of a metalized plane-parallel glass solar filter with ventilated mounting rings. The filter’s housing threaded into the telescope’s corrector lens cell.[21]

In addition to a solar filter, Braymer mentioned possibilities for other optical accessories including a finder, eyepieces of various focal lengths, a film holder, or stereoscopic attachments.[22]

Auxiliary Systems

During what proved to be an intense period of design work in the late 1940s, Braymer was not only concerned about the optics of his telescope. He also conceived of several other features that would later contribute to a truly unique instrument. One sees the product of this effort in three other patent applications that Braymer submitted between June and September 1948.

Emergence of the Control Box

Figure 10 from U.S. Patent #2,649,791
Figure 10 from U.S. Patent #2,649,791 showing an early depiction of what became Questar’s control box. Lawrence Braymer via patents.google.com

From an early point, Braymer put considerable energy into exploring possibilities for what he would later call Questar’s “control box,” its most distinct feature. In his patent application of June 16, 1948, Braymer described a housing at the end of the telescope barrel that included two focus knobs on either side. It also featured “a plurality of apertures... disposed transversely to one another and having threaded walls for receiving any desired accessory” such as an eyepiece or other items. Oculars attached to either the rear or top opening by way of an eyepiece tube, and a cap closed whatever port was not in use.[23] The interchangeability of the eyepiece holder and the cap, both having the same size and threading, was a feature that would make its way to the early production Questar telescopes.

Braymer continued to develop his idea for a rear-mounted apparatus that served multiple purposes. In one of two patent applications that he submitted on September 25, 1948, he described various elements of a “multiple image telescope,” a design that would continue to evolve before the Questar telescope went into production.

Figures 1, 2, and 3 from U.S. Patent #2,753,760
Figures 1, 2, and 3 from U.S. Patent #2,753,760 showing various ways that the rear housing of Braymer’s telescope could be used. Lawrence Braymer via patents.google.com

He envisioned an instrument featuring “an auxiliary optical system” mounted beneath and parallel to the optical axis of the telescope’s main optics. This additional system had a shorter focal length and wider field of view “so as to provide an effective finder for the instrument.” By moving another prism situated inside the instrument’s rear housing back and forth, “the image formed by the finder or the image formed by the main optical system may be brought into view alternately in a single ocular.”[24] Having the ability to switch from low to high power without moving one’s eye from the eyepiece was a feature that Braymer conceived of at a relatively early stage in Questar’s development.

This finder system may have “a single objective lens” for providing the least magnification. Or it may consist of “a plurality of lens elements... for providing a finder of greater focal length than that provided by a simple objective and which may approximate the focal length of the main optical system of the telescope.” Both designs featured a prism that directed light from the finder objective to an eyepiece mounted on top of the rear housing.[25] The entire assembly that Braymer proposed in his patent foreshadowed both the low-power finder system that made its way to the production Questar telescope and the higher-power finder that Questar implemented much later for birding applications.

By disengaging the movable diagonal prism inside the rear housing, a user could direct the image from the instrument’s main optics straight back to an attached photographic or scanning device. Alternatively, the user could simultaneously observe the finder system’s low-power image visually while also recording a high-power image from the main optics.[26]

Any number of accessories could be coupled with the telescope using an appropriate adapter. Braymer envisioned at least three scenarios. First, a film camera could be attached to the rear opening in the housing by means of an adapter. Second, an eyepiece positioned either on top or at the rear “may serve to position the eye of an observer, which is itself a form of camera obscura having a light sensitive surface formed by the retina.” And third, “a television tube such as an iconoscope tube or image orthicon tube having a sensitive surface” could serve as a possible accessory attachment at the focal plane.[27] Considering that television was still in its infancy in the late 1940s, Braymer clearly demonstrated his awareness of cutting-edge technology and his eagerness to explore possibilities for its application.

Figures 4, 5, 6, and 7 from U.S. Patent #2,753,760
Figures 4, 5, 6, and 7 from U.S. Patent #2,753,760 showing construction of what would later be called the control box with prism that slides up and down and side to side, swings on a pivoting assembly, or moves on a hinge. Lawrence Braymer via patents.google.com

Braymer detailed four variations of the mechanism for moving the diagonal prism: one that slid up and down along a pair of rails, another design with side-to-side movement, a third calling for a prism mounted on swinging pivot assembly, and a fourth possibility that used a hinged motion. Whatever the variation, the procedure was this: first, the user aimed the telescope by moving the sliding prism aside and engaging finder mode, thus allowing light from the auxiliary optical system to reach the eyepiece at low power. For visual observing at a higher magnification, the user then moved the prism back so that it directed light from the main optical system to the eyepiece. And after centering and focusing the image in the eyepiece, the user could move the prism aside again to channel light to a rear-mounted camera. Or by attaching an ocular to the telescope in place of the camera, “an object may be simultaneously observed by two persons to facilitate instruction or the like.”[28]

In another patent application that he filed on the same day as that for his “multiple image telescope,” Braymer went so far as to present an entirely different catadioptric telescope with an additional movable secondary mirror. The design put long- and short-focus optical systems in one instrument. By splitting the path of light from the primary mirror and directing it both to a front-mounted eyepiece and to another one situated at the instrument’s back, it allowed two observers to use the telescope concurrently.[29] While none of its elements found their way to the production Questar telescope, the design showed his energetic commitment to exploring a wide range of options.

Mount

Figures 18 and 19 from U.S. Patent #2,649,791
Figures 18 and 19 from U.S. Patent #2,649,791 showing side views of Braymer's telescope. Lawrence Braymer via patents.google.com

No less important than its optics, the instrument’s mount also received significant attention from Braymer. After designing an optical tube assembly, he turned to the problem of developing the mechanics that would allow it to “fit on a table top and, at the same time, be portable,” as Marguerite Braymer later remembered.[30]

In his June 1948 patent application, he described possibilities for a one- and two-armed fork mount that featured manual slow-motion controls. His invention, he wrote, consists of “a portable telescope having its barrel supported on a base through adjustable mounting members permitting the instrument to be used as an equatorial telescope or for azimuth-altitude observation.”[31] Ease of use was foremost on Braymer’s mind.

In its simplest orientation, the telescope could be used with its seat held parallel with the horizontal plane. The mount’s base rested on a firm tabletop surface, and its fork arm pointed straight up for simple left-to-right and up-and-down motions. Braymer envisioned this orientation for those occasions when the user engaged in terrestrial applications.[32]

Figures 1 and 21 from U.S. Patent #2,649,791
Figures 1 and 21 from U.S. Patent #2,649,791 showing Braymer’s telescope in equatorial alignment. Lawrence Braymer via patents.google.com

For astronomical observation, the telescope’s seat slid forward so that the user could align its axis of rotation with the celestial pole. To track the apparent movement of a heavenly body across the sky, one only needed to operate a single control to maintain that object in the field of view.[33]

Regardless of the orientation, Braymer’s design called for a vibrationless mount with rigid members and broad bearing surfaces. It maintained its stability no matter how the telescope was oriented. Moreover, his sliding-seat design kept the telescope’s center of gravity over the center of its base. Braymer also gave careful attention to limiting the curvature radius for the base’s sliding seat guide so that, when a user made adjustments for different latitudes in equatorial mode, it would not extend outside the area of the base’s footprint underneath.[34]

Figure 23 from U.S. Patent #2,649,791
Figure 23 from U.S. Patent #2,649,791 showing Braymer’s two-armed fork mount design operating in equatorial mode. Lawrence Braymer via patents.google.com

In addition to proposing a design for a one-armed mount design, Braymer made passing mention of another variation: a two-armed U-shaped fork mount. An auxiliary bracket linked the telescope’s tube with both side arms, and the connecting bolt exerted pressure for maintaining the instrument’s position. Each side arm “may be further stiffened by suitable ribs or webs.”[35] Although they were not a very prominent part of the design that Braymer articulated in his patent, all of these elements ultimately found their way to the production Questar telescope.

Figure 3 from U.S. Patent #2,649,791
Figure 3 from U.S. Patent #2,649,791 showing Braymer’s design for a telescope tube that rotated along the edge of its auxiliary bracket. Lawrence Braymer via patents.google.com

The telescope’s optical tube made contact with its mount by means of an auxiliary bracket around its back enclosure. Limiting the contact point to the rear of the instrument allowed a dew shield to retract fully over the entire telescope tube when the shield was not in use.[36]

Further enhancing the usability of the instrument, Braymer’s design also called for a telescope tube that rotated around its optical axis along the inside edge of its auxiliary bracket. The rear enclosure of the tube “is rotatably secured to the face of the ring” by means of a “pair of clamps” that bear “against the back of the ring... and having lips bearing against the closure.”[37] At an early stage, Braymer envisioned key parts for the construction and operation of Questar’s rotatable barrel.

Figure 7 from U.S. Patent #2,649,791
Figure 7 from U.S. Patent #2,649,791 showing a parts explosion of Braymer’s design for a mount including his lever-based slow-motion mechanism. Lawrence Braymer via patents.google.com

The user could make coarse adjustments for either axis of movement by grasping and turning the barrel. But for fine adjustments, Braymer designed a lever mechanism. The user operated it by rotating an eccentric cam on its upper end. The subsequent rocking motion of the lever moved its lower end, which was seated in a yoke. One lever provided slow-motion control for azimuth or right ascension motion while another enabled fine tuning for altitude or declination.[38] Although this lever-based design suffered from a limited range of motion, one can see the genesis of an overall concept for a manual slow-motion control system here. Eventually, Braymer abandoned this design in favor of a pinion and drive disk assembly that provided continuous movement, a design that he ultimately used in the production Questar.

Navigation Aids

Maximizing its convenience, Braymer made plans for several navigation aids to be built into his telescope. He called for a dial that indicated azimuth and right ascension and a scale attached to a mount arm for showing altitude and declination.[39]

Figures 15, 16, and 17 from U.S. Patent #2,649,791
Figures 15, 16, and 17 from U.S. Patent #2,649,791 showing Braymer’s moon map and star chart shield design. Lawrence Braymer via patents.google.com

Far more conspicuous in his patent application were Braymer’s designs for a moon map skin affixed to the telescope’s tube and a sliding dew and light shield with a perpetual star chart. “The lunar chart,” Braymer wrote, “facilitates the location and identification of characteristic features of the moon, and the rotatability of the barrel, with the lunar chart fixed thereon, makes it possible to turn to the top any desired section of the lunar map.” He called for the star chart shield to be made of metal foil covered in a thin sheet of transparent plastic and internally lined with velour or flocked paper. It was to be made as lightweight as possible so that, when it was fully extended, the shield would not upset the instrument’s center of gravity.[40]

Figure 22 from U.S. Patent #2,649,791
Figure 22 from U.S. Patent #2,649,791 showing use of the star chart shield. Lawrence Braymer via patents.google.com

The shield’s exterior surface would contain maps and data that were printed using “noctilucent or phosphorescent pigments.” A monthly or seasonal scale was to be included on its top edge. On the bottom edge, an hour angle scale indicated sidereal time. “Since the stellar map is a fair representation in miniature of the segment of the celestial sphere in sight, and the remaining stars on the map are rendered invisible by being directed beneath the barrel, just as invisible stars are beneath the earth, an observer may readily co-relate the visible stars on the map with the visible stars in the sky.”[41]

He called for both the star chart shield and the lunar map tube skin to be made of a material with low thermal conductivity so as to prevent distortion of the optics or the image. The sliding star chart shield also served to insulate the telescope tube when it was fully retracted.[42]

Portability and Storage

Figures 20 and 24 from U.S. Patent #2,649,791
Figures 20 and 24 from U.S. Patent #2,649,791 showing Braymer’s telescope in an orientation for packing and transport. Lawrence Braymer via patents.google.com

Underscoring his emphasis on ease of use, Braymer also considered how his telescope should be positioned for transportation and storage. While there was no sign of the leather carrying case that would become a signature accessory for Questar, his June 1948 patent application did include illustrations showing his telescope in both its single- and dual-arm variations in its orientation for packing.[43]

In all of the patent applications he submitted in the late 1940s, Braymer showed his concern for creating a versatile, well-accessorized, portable, convenient, and self-contained package. With much of his basic design work complete by the end of the decade—and with that work under patent protection—he turned his energy toward making those plans a reality.

Next: § 1.3. Final Pieces Fall into Place

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Notes

1 Dun and Bradstreet, report for Questar Corporation, March 25, 1958, https://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/Questar/files/Fred%20K.%20Leisch%20Questar%20/, accessed October 14, 2019; “Lawrence Braymer, Devised a Telescope,” New York Times, December 2, 1965, 41, https://timesmachine.nytimes.com/timesmachine/1965/12/02/95917409.pdf, accessed December 2, 2019; Stewart Squires, online forum posting, Questar Users Group, August 10, 2010, https://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/Questar/conversations/messages/21192, accessed November 3, 2019.

2 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Sky and Telescope, July 1977, inside front cover.

3 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Natural History, April 1963, 9.

4 Stewart Squires, online forum posting, Questar Users Group, August 10, 2010, https://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/Questar/conversations/messages/21192, accessed November 3, 2019; Rodger Gordon to the author, September 23, 2020.

5 Stewart Squires, online forum posting, Questar Users Group, August 10, 2010, https://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/Questar/conversations/messages/21192, accessed November 3, 2019.

6 Questar Corporation, Questar booklet, July 1964, 36.

7 Stewart Squires, online forum posting, Questar Users Group, August 10, 2010, https://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/Questar/conversations/messages/21192, accessed November 3, 2019.

8 Stewart Squires, email message to author, October 28, 2019.

9 Stewart Squires, online forum posting, Questar Users Group, August 10, 2010, https://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/Questar/conversations/messages/21192, accessed November 3, 2019.

10 Stewart Squires, online forum posting, Questar Users Group, August 10, 2010, https://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/Questar/conversations/messages/21193, accessed November 3, 2019.

11 Questar Corporation, advertisement, Sky and Telescope, October 1963, inside front cover.

12 Lawrence Braymer, 1954, Telescope, U.S. Patent 2,670,656, filed November 25, 1947, and issued March 2, 1954, https://patents.google.com/patent/US2670656, accessed December 29, 2019.

13 Lawrence Braymer, 1954, Telescope, U.S. Patent 2,670,656, filed November 25, 1947, and issued March 2, 1954, https://patents.google.com/patent/US2670656, accessed December 29, 2019.

14 Lawrence Braymer, 1954, Telescope, U.S. Patent 2,670,656, filed November 25, 1947, and issued March 2, 1954, https://patents.google.com/patent/US2670656, accessed December 29, 2019.

15 Lawrence Braymer, 1954, Telescope, U.S. Patent 2,670,656, filed November 25, 1947, and issued March 2, 1954, https://patents.google.com/patent/US2670656, accessed December 29, 2019.

16 Lawrence Braymer, 1954, Telescope, U.S. Patent 2,670,656, filed November 25, 1947, and issued March 2, 1954, https://patents.google.com/patent/US2670656, accessed December 29, 2019.

17 Lawrence Braymer, 1954, Telescope, U.S. Patent 2,670,656, filed November 25, 1947, and issued March 2, 1954, https://patents.google.com/patent/US2670656, accessed December 29, 2019.

18 Lawrence Braymer, 1954, Telescope, U.S. Patent 2,670,656, filed November 25, 1947, and issued March 2, 1954, https://patents.google.com/patent/US2670656, accessed December 29, 2019.

19 Lawrence Braymer, 1954, Telescope, U.S. Patent 2,670,656, filed November 25, 1947, and issued March 2, 1954, https://patents.google.com/patent/US2670656, accessed December 29, 2019.

20 Stewart Squires, online forum posting, Questar Users Group, August 10, 2010, https://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/Questar/conversations/messages/21192, accessed November 3, 2019. Rodger Gordon writes that, while it is unclear whether it was Braymer or his later employee John Schneck who conceived of the idea for a focusing mechanism based on a moving mirror, it was probably the case that it was Braymer’s idea and that Schneck got it to work (Rodger Gordon to the author, September 23, 2020).

21 Lawrence Braymer, 1954, Telescope, U.S. Patent 2,670,656, filed November 25, 1947, and issued March 2, 1954, https://patents.google.com/patent/US2670656, accessed December 29, 2019.

22 Lawrence Braymer, 1954, Telescope, U.S. Patent 2,670,656, filed November 25, 1947, and issued March 2, 1954, https://patents.google.com/patent/US2670656, accessed December 29, 2019.

23 Lawrence Braymer, 1953, Telescope, U.S. Patent 2,649,791, filed June 16, 1948, and issued August 25, 1953, https://patents.google.com/patent/US2649791, accessed June 9, 2020.

24 Lawrence Braymer, 1953, Reflecting Telescope with Auxiliary Optical System, U.S. Patent 2,628,529, filed September 25, 1948, and issued February 17, 1953, https://patents.google.com/patent/US2753760, accessed June 9, 2020.

25 Lawrence Braymer, 1953, Reflecting Telescope with Auxiliary Optical System, U.S. Patent 2,628,529, filed September 25, 1948, and issued February 17, 1953, https://patents.google.com/patent/US2753760, accessed June 9, 2020.

26 Lawrence Braymer, 1953, Reflecting Telescope with Auxiliary Optical System, U.S. Patent 2,628,529, filed September 25, 1948, and issued February 17, 1953, https://patents.google.com/patent/US2753760, accessed June 9, 2020.

27 Lawrence Braymer, 1953, Reflecting Telescope with Auxiliary Optical System, U.S. Patent 2,628,529, filed September 25, 1948, and issued February 17, 1953, https://patents.google.com/patent/US2753760, accessed June 9, 2020.

28 Lawrence Braymer, 1953, Reflecting Telescope with Auxiliary Optical System, U.S. Patent 2,628,529, filed September 25, 1948, and issued February 17, 1953, https://patents.google.com/patent/US2753760, accessed June 9, 2020.

29 Lawrence Braymer, 1956, Multiple Image Telescope, U.S. Patent 2,753,760, filed September 25, 1948, and issued July 10, 1956, https://patents.google.com/patent/US2628529, accessed June 9, 2020.

30 Charles Shaw, “Larry Braymer: ‘In Quest of the Stars,’” New Hope Gazette, March 14, 1985, 3, https://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/Questar/files/FAQ/, accessed October 15, 2019.

31 Lawrence Braymer, 1953, Telescope, U.S. Patent 2,649,791, filed June 16, 1948, and issued August 25, 1953, https://patents.google.com/patent/US2649791, accessed June 9, 2020.

32 Lawrence Braymer, 1953, Telescope, U.S. Patent 2,649,791, filed June 16, 1948, and issued August 25, 1953, https://patents.google.com/patent/US2649791, accessed June 9, 2020.

33 Lawrence Braymer, 1953, Telescope, U.S. Patent 2,649,791, filed June 16, 1948, and issued August 25, 1953, https://patents.google.com/patent/US2649791, accessed June 9, 2020.

34 Lawrence Braymer, 1953, Telescope, U.S. Patent 2,649,791, filed June 16, 1948, and issued August 25, 1953, https://patents.google.com/patent/US2649791, accessed June 9, 2020.

35 Lawrence Braymer, 1953, Telescope, U.S. Patent 2,649,791, filed June 16, 1948, and issued August 25, 1953, https://patents.google.com/patent/US2649791, accessed June 9, 2020.

36 Lawrence Braymer, 1953, Telescope, U.S. Patent 2,649,791, filed June 16, 1948, and issued August 25, 1953, https://patents.google.com/patent/US2649791, accessed June 9, 2020.

37 Lawrence Braymer, 1953, Telescope, U.S. Patent 2,649,791, filed June 16, 1948, and issued August 25, 1953, https://patents.google.com/patent/US2649791, accessed June 9, 2020.

38 Lawrence Braymer, 1953, Telescope, U.S. Patent 2,649,791, filed June 16, 1948, and issued August 25, 1953, https://patents.google.com/patent/US2649791, accessed June 9, 2020.

39 Lawrence Braymer, 1953, Telescope, U.S. Patent 2,649,791, filed June 16, 1948, and issued August 25, 1953, https://patents.google.com/patent/US2649791, accessed June 9, 2020.

40 Lawrence Braymer, 1953, Telescope, U.S. Patent 2,649,791, filed June 16, 1948, and issued August 25, 1953, https://patents.google.com/patent/US2649791, accessed June 9, 2020.

41 Lawrence Braymer, 1953, Telescope, U.S. Patent 2,649,791, filed June 16, 1948, and issued August 25, 1953, https://patents.google.com/patent/US2649791, accessed June 9, 2020.

42 Lawrence Braymer, 1953, Telescope, U.S. Patent 2,649,791, filed June 16, 1948, and issued August 25, 1953, https://patents.google.com/patent/US2649791, accessed June 9, 2020.

43 Lawrence Braymer, 1953, Telescope, U.S. Patent 2,649,791, filed June 16, 1948, and issued August 25, 1953, https://patents.google.com/patent/US2649791, accessed June 9, 2020.